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Rare Tumor of Neuroepithelial Tissue

Neuroepithelial Neoplasm


Presentation

  • We present a classic case of DNT occurring in an 18-year-old male, who presented simple partial seizures without signs of raised intracranial pressure. CT and MR demonstrated focal mass located in the right temporal lobe.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • The rationales for these trials are discussed and resulting data from the completed trials are presented. Chapter 55: Cytokines Research on cytokines is another area that is exploding in magnitude.[books.google.de]
  • Conclusions The case presented here is challenging and unique.[diagnosticpathology.biomedcentral.com]
  • Presentation on theme: "Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue"— Presentation transcript: 1 Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue Marta E.[slideplayer.com]
  • Histologically, they exhibit low cellularity, often contain Rosenthal fibers, and present with mural nodules.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epilepsy
  • We reviewed the clinical, electroencephalographic, neuroimaging and pathological features of 16 patients with DNT who underwent surgery; only one patient did not have epilepsy.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • Refractory epilepsy is often managed and cured by surgical resection of the tumor.[medlink.com]
  • Furthermore, a longer period of epilepsy, and patients older in age are less likely to have a full recovery and remain seizure free.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors deserve a special mention here because they are known to be associated with medically-intractable epilepsy that can be cured by surgical resection of the tumor.[lecturio.com]
  • The two former types are often localized to the temporal lobes and cause epilepsy. Central neurocytoma is an intraventricular tumor of cells with neuronal differentiation.[oncolex.org]
Asymptomatic
  • One patient, a previously asymptomatic 12 year old girl, presented with an acute intracerebral haemorrhage into a DNT.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • Due to the slow growing nature of meningiomas, most remain asymptomatic. Meningiomas rarely affect children with an incidence rate of roughly 2.2% [ 160 ] and of these, prevalence of neurofibromatosis was 14.5% [ 161 ].[omicsonline.org]
Fishing
  • We retrospectively evaluated 14 DNTs for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 1p by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and compared the results with 1p FISH analysis in 57 low-grade oligodendrogliomas (World Health Organization grade II).[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may be useful diagnostically in some cases (see the image below).[emedicine.medscape.com]
Disability
  • This tumor is generally seen in young patients with a long-standing history of drug-resistant and disabling seizures mostly of the complex partial type.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
Aspiration
  • Chapter 78: Lung Cancer Advances in diagnostic techniques are described such as ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or electromagnetic navigation diagnostic bronchoscopy. Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) discussion is updated.[books.google.de]
  • A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy is only done when there are signs the cancer has spread to the bone marrow. Enlarge Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.[cancer.gov]
  • Staging CT scan and bone scan: to confirm/or exclude metastatic spread to the lung and bones Histopathology: Type of tumor : is evaluated with fine needle aspiration biopsy, if lesion is suspected from malignancy.[telemedicina.med.muni.cz]
  • Management options include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic removal (surgery through a small tube called an "endoscope") or microsurgical removal. Removing the cyst without causing brain damage can be difficult.[aans.org]
  • Open biopsy (incisional biopsy) or core needle biopsy (tru-cut, guided by ultrasound or CT scan) is preferred to fine needle aspirates that could establish the presence of malignancy, but rarely identify the subtype or provide the tissue required for[sarcomahelp.org]
Nausea
  • Symptoms such as headache or nausea generally develop very quickly, often just weeks before diagnosis.[nyulangone.org]
  • These drugs are very good at killing cancer cells, but they also can kill other healthy cells and can cause hair loss, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and other unpleasant reactions.[webmd.com]
  • Symptoms are often due to obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid, which can cause headache, fatigue, nausea and personality changes.[braincancer.org]
  • Patients present with the usual symptoms of a mass lesion in the brain with headache, nausea and vomiting, and visual disturbances. These tumors appear to behave in a benign fashion.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • The most common symptoms include: Headaches (usually worse in the morning) Nausea or vomiting Changes in speech, vision or hearing Problems balancing or walking Changes in mood, personality or ability to concentrate Problems with memory Muscle jerking[chop.edu]
Vomiting
  • Tumors in the abdomen can cause vomiting, pain, or constipation. Tumors in the neck, chest, arms, legs, back, or groin can cause lumps or swelling.[webmd.com]
  • Symptoms can include a loss of vision, growth problems, frequent urination, headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes the tumor can affect behavior and learning.[nyulangone.org]
  • Patients present with the usual symptoms of a mass lesion in the brain with headache, nausea and vomiting, and visual disturbances. These tumors appear to behave in a benign fashion.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • The most common symptoms include: Headaches (usually worse in the morning) Nausea or vomiting Changes in speech, vision or hearing Problems balancing or walking Changes in mood, personality or ability to concentrate Problems with memory Muscle jerking[chop.edu]
  • This was associated with dizziness, ataxia, and vomiting. The past and family history was not significant. His general physical examination and systemic examination were not contributory.[cancerjournal.net]
Headache
  • However, patients with a brain tumor more often report a bifrontal, tension-type headache. 12 In addition, a chronic, persistent headache with nausea, vomiting, seizures, changes in headache pattern, neurologic symptoms, or positional worsening should[aafp.org]
  • Symptoms such as headache or nausea generally develop very quickly, often just weeks before diagnosis.[nyulangone.org]
  • Patients with these tumors often complain of headaches that are worse at night.[braincancer.org]
  • Patients present with the usual symptoms of a mass lesion in the brain with headache, nausea and vomiting, and visual disturbances. These tumors appear to behave in a benign fashion.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • If it occurs gradually, the patient may develop headache, double vision, difficult walking, memory problems or other difficulties.[aans.org]
Generalized Seizure
  • […] yet been classified. [1] Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Seizures and epilepsy are the strongest ties to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours. [4] The most common symptom of DNTs are complex partial seizures. [2] Simple DNTs more frequently manifest generalized[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] papillary abnormalities, nystagmus, hemiparesis, autonomic dysfunction The following have been reported by patients as the first symptom of a primary brain tumor: headache (23.5% of patients); generalized seizures (21.3%); unilateral weakness (7.1%);[aafp.org]
Focal Seizure
  • Presenting Manifestations of Primary Brain Tumors by Location Tumor location Neurologic signs Frontal lobe Dementia, personality changes, gait disturbances, generalized or focal seizures, expressive aphasia Parietal lobe Receptive aphasia, sensory loss[aafp.org]

Workup

  • The most important diagnostic test in the workup of CNS tumors in children is neuroimaging.[lecturio.com]
  • Findings of chest CT and chest radiography, conducted as part of the workup to assess possible sarcoma, were negative. The testes were also normal, as determined by CT (Fig. 2b ).[diagnosticpathology.biomedcentral.com]
  • Despite the diverse group of neoplasms represented, most intracranial tumors follow similar clinical presentations and diagnostic workups.[omicsonline.org]
Mass Lesion of the Brain
  • Patients present with the usual symptoms of a mass lesion in the brain with headache, nausea and vomiting, and visual disturbances. These tumors appear to behave in a benign fashion.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]

Treatment

  • The book is a testament to the editorial panel's creed that innovative, comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment of cancer patients must be grounded in a fundamental understanding of cancer biology.[books.google.de]
  • A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.[cancer.gov]
  • Some cancer treatments cause side effects that continue or appear years after cancer treatment has ended. These are called late effects.[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • Learn about arteriosclerotic (vascular) dementia diagnosis, symptoms, causes and treatments at Northwell Health Learn about Arteriovenous (AV) Fistula diagnosis, symptoms, causes and treatments at the Northwell Health Brain Aneurysm Center and Cerebrovascular[northwell.edu]
  • Treatment is dictated by the tumor's location and patient's symptoms.[aans.org]

Prognosis

  • Predictive factors: (controversial) Necrosis: presence and extent correlates with poor prognosis Resection: greater extent of resection, better prognosis Age: young age, better prognosis Proliferation, correlates directly with histologic grade Genetics[slideplayer.com]
  • PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT CHARACTERIZATION Prognostic Factors Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report. Hammond RR, Duggal N, Woulfe JM, Girvin JP.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • Prognosis Overall, the prognosis for benign phyllodes tumors is very good. And most people with malignant phyllodes tumors can be cured with the right treatment.[verywell.com]
  • There is a high degree of correlation between what the histology shows and the prognosis.[oncolex.org]
  • Prognosis and outcome Prognosis of pediatric GI tumors depends on type of tumor, localization, extent of disease and underlying genetic condition.[telemedicina.med.muni.cz]

Etiology

  • In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology[books.google.de]
  • Premalignant stage is common in adult cancer, but not for pediatric tumors Etiology: environmental factors are fundamental for etiopathogenesis of adult cancer, but have minimal role in etiology of pediatric tumors, etiology of pediatric cancer still[telemedicina.med.muni.cz]
  • Pathophysiology and Etiology The pathophysiology and etiology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) and central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are briefly reviewed in this section.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Clinical Clues to Nonmalignant Brain Lesions Clinical clues Suggested etiology Abnormalities found on more extensive imaging that are suggestive of an etiology Cysticercosis, fungal infections, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis Chronic fever; recent dental procedure[aafp.org]
  • Etiology of CNS Tumors in Children Few conditions have been linked to an increased risk of developing CNS tumors in children such as neurofibromatosis type 1, neurofibromatosis type 2, tuberous sclerosis and von Hippel-Lindau disease.[lecturio.com]

Epidemiology

  • In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology[books.google.de]
  • Etiology and etiopathogenesis Based on rarity of breast tumors in young generation is only very limited number of epidemiology studies focused on pediatric and adolescent age. Fibroadenoma occurence is sporadic in most of the cases.[telemedicina.med.muni.cz]
  • American Journal of Epidemiology 145: 581-593. Malmer B, Grönberg H, Bergenheim AT, Lenner P, Henriksson R (1999) Familial aggregation of astrocytoma in northern Sweden: an epidemiological cohort study. Int J Cancer 81: 366-370.[omicsonline.org]
  • Epidemiology [ edit ] Children are much more prone to exhibit these dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours than adults. [1] The mean age of onset of seizures for children with DNTs is 8.1 years old. [1] Few other neurological deficits are associated[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Possible malignant neoplasms of the CNS are the following: Gliomas Meningiomas Metastatic disease Possible benign neoplasms of the CNS are the following: Pituitary adenomas Acoustic neuromas Epidemiology of CNS Tumors in Children Central nervous system[lecturio.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology and Etiology The pathophysiology and etiology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) and central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are briefly reviewed in this section.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Posterior fossa syndromes and cerebellar ataxia are also common with infratentorial tumors which can be also explained by the pathophysiology of these tumors; hence, their location is within the cerebellum.[lecturio.com]
  • Gavrilovic IT, Posner JB (2005) Brain metastases: epidemiology and pathophysiology. J Neurooncol 75: 5-14. Norden AD, Wen PY, Kesari S (2005) Brain metastases. Curr Opin Neurol 18: 654-661.[omicsonline.org]

Prevention

  • In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology[books.google.de]
  • TIME TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE Donate We are 100 % research Your donations help to fund innovative and impactful research projects that aim to better prevent, detect and treat cancer.[crs-src.ca]
  • Doctors don’t know any way to prevent Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), but there are treatments. The name rhabdomyosarcoma comes from the type of cells this cancer usually forms in called rhabdomyoblasts.[webmd.com]
  • Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities.[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • […] used to treat brain tumors include: Chemotherapy (cancer drugs) Radiation therapy (high-energy rays that kill or shrink cancer cells) Proton therapy (a precise form of radiation therapy that is less damaging to surrounding tissue) Steroids to treat and prevent[chop.edu]

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