Rectal trauma occurs due to various injuries, like anorectal avulsion, automobile, gunshot or stab wounds, foreign body ingestion, drug trafficking, or erotic activity. Diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients who cannot or will not offer a detailed description of their injury.
Patients may present with isolated rectal trauma or associated injuries like pelvic fractures or penetrating abdominal, buttock or thigh injuries that are potentially life threatening. If severe, these lesions have a 50% mortality rate. Bone fragments may induce rectal wall laceration. While inquiring about the history of the disease, the physician must obtain information about any pain, tenesmus, incontinence and associated genitourinary and abdominal symptoms . In military injuries, type, trajectory, and velocity of the penetrating foreign body must be known in order to understand potential lesions .
In selected cases, careful clinical examination (inspection, sphincter tonus assessment) followed by digital evaluation should be performed, although controversy exists regarding the utility of the latter method  . However, it can detect gross rectal blood loss and laceration  . In sexual assault, the physician should keep in mind that disruption of the rectal wall is likely and document evidence if the patient is stable. Prostate evaluation in men is useful if concomitant lesions of the urethra are suspected. Examination should also assess vital signs according to the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol defined by the American College of Surgeons. Peritonitis and pelvic fracture signs should be looked for. If a perineal penetration wound is noticed, entry and exit signs should be documented. Women should also undergo vaginal bimanual and speculum examination with focus on the posterior wall.
Entire Body System
- Perineal Pain
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Background Perineal pain from a tear and/or surgical cut (episiotomy) is a common problem following vaginal birth. [cochranelibrary.com]
Some women chose not to speak with their doctors because they believed that anal incontinence was a normal consequence of childbirth. 6, 12 The scope of life-disrupting morbidities Perineal pain and dyspareunia may persist for years Perineal pain can [mdedge.com]
Available from: A 38-year-old male presented to emergency department complaining of rectal bleeding accompanied by dull pelvic and perineal pain. [onlinejets.org]
- Weight Gain
At the moment defecation takes place 2-3 times a day, growth and weight gain are quite normal. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Recurrent Pulmonary Embolism
Two of the 20 patients (10 percent) died, one after a prolonged septic course and one from recurrent pulmonary embolism. Rectal trauma continues to be a challenging injury. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Fecal Incontinence
The management of fecal incontinence is a struggle to maintain patient hygiene and limit the transmission of nosocomial infections. Intrarectal devices that cause diversion and collection of the fecal stream have been used with increasing frequency. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The safety and efficacy of the artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence: results from a multicenter cohort study. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45 (9) 1139-1153 33 Wexner SD, Baeten C, Bailey R, et al. [thieme-connect.com]
incontinence NOS, Gallstones, GERD, Germ cell tumor, Hemangioma, Hiatal hernia, Hirschsprung's disease, Hydrocele, Hyperhidrosis NOS, Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Inguinal hernia, Intestinal obstruction, Irritable bowel syndrome, Neuroblastoma [mayoclinic.org]
She goes on to discuss the various surgical and non-surgical treatments for fecal incontinence and other complications. Dr. [patientpower.info]
FECAL INCONTINENCE Fecal incontinence is the inadvertent passage of flatus, liquid or solid stool. [aafp.org]
- Rectal Pain
Both result in gastrointestinal inflammation and rectal pain. [verywell.com]
Rectal pain is the symptom of pain in the area of the rectum. [en.wikipedia.org]
On presentation, the patient complained of peri-anal pruritis but denied rectal pain, hematochezia and dyschezia. [academic.oup.com]
An unexpected source of acute onset rectal pain One of my patients called our office, and insisted on making an appointment for her 14-year-old daughter for evaluation of a rectal tear. [clinicaladvisor.com]
They may present with rectal pain, bleeding, abdominal pain, obstipation or even peritonitis (Shah et al, 2002; Cohen and Sackier, 1996; Crass et al, 1981). [nursingtimes.net]
A common symptom of proctitis is called tenesmus. Tenesmus is a frequent urge to have a bowel movement. Inflammation and irritation of the rectum and rectal lining cause tenesmus. [healthline.com]
While inquiring about the history of the disease, the physician must obtain information about any pain, tenesmus, incontinence and associated genitourinary and abdominal symptoms. [symptoma.com]
Despite tenesmus and the urge to stimulate herself digitally, she was unable to produce stool. The patient reported no recent vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, or history of rectal instrumentation or trauma. [mdmag.com]
Epidural anesthesia Anesthesia: epidural may be necessary to reduce peristalsis and tenesmus. This can be achieved using lidocaine Lidocaine, but xylazine Xylazine may be preferred as it causes less ataxia and weakness. [vetstream.com]
On presentation, the patient complained of peri-anal pruritis but denied rectal pain, hematochezia and dyschezia. [academic.oup.com]
- Blood in Stool
Blood in stool after car accidents is one of the colon trauma symptoms. Diagnosis of Colon and Rectal Trauma The diagnosis of trauma to the colon and rectum is usually found at the time of surgery. [autoaccident.com]
Clinical evaluation should be followed by blood workup and imaging studies. The complete blood cell count may show acute posthemorrhagic anemia. Rigid or flexible proctoscopy or sigmoidoscopy offer valuable information  in penetrating and blunt injuries  , but they should be performed carefully and gently by an experienced doctor in order to prevent further injury. Despite the fact that they are the gold standard in detecting rectal damage , if other imaging methods offer reliable information, they can be excluded from the workup. However, sigmoidoscopy can sometimes fail to identify wounds and may have up to 31% false negative results .
Computer tomography can be used in rectal trauma, but if associated bowel injury is suspected, evaluation can prove difficult  and oral, intravenous or rectal contrast should be used, if appropriate, in order to increase sensitivity and specificity . Bladder lesions can also be evaluated by this method. Triple-contrast helical computed tomography has higher accuracy if combined with contrast enema  . This latter method can also be applied by itself.
Guaiac testing is another complementary diagnosis method. It has acceptable sensitivity (69%), but low specificity (33%) .
- Rectal Ulcer
Injury is most likely to occur because of traumatic removal or rectal ulceration secondary to pressure necrosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
ulcer syndrome, Ulcerative colitis, Umbilical hernia, Wilms' tumor more see full list in profile [mayoclinic.org]
Karger AG, Basel Introduction Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a chronic, benign disorder of defecation. [karger.com]
Diagnosis and management of rectal blunt trauma is still a matter of debate and no definitive recommendation treatments are available. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Management and prognosis depend on the severity of the trauma. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma attempted to quantify the severity of anal trauma and proposed the Rectal Injury Scaling System comprising five degrees of severity. [abdominalkey.com]
Equis ISSN 2398-2977 Synonym(s): Rectal liner Contributor(s): Prof Gary M Baxter, Timothy Mair, Graham Munroe Introduction Initial management First aid and prompt referral/treatment is of paramount importance to prognosis. [vetstream.com]
[…] mesenteric vessels 4, 7 abrupt termination of the mesenteric vessels 7 accumulation ('pooling') of contrast on multiphase imaging suggestive signs 7 mesenteric infilatration: haziness and fat stranding mesenteric hematoma bowel wall thickening Treatment and prognosis [radiopaedia.org]
Prognosis Failure rates as high as 35% have been reported following treatment of rectal gonorrhea; symptoms frequently recur. [emedicine.medscape.com]
What Is the Prognosis for Rectal Bleeding? The majority of people with significant rectal bleeding are elderly. Members of this population commonly have many other medical problems. [emedicinehealth.com]
Article / Publication Details First-Page Preview Abstract Colitis cystica profunda (CCP) is a rare benign condition with a controversial etiology. [karger.com]
Etiology• Blunt trauma• This is rare due to the protected situation of the anus and rectum and it is usually associated with fracture pelvis. The commonest cause is motor vehicle accidents followed by falls and crush injuries. 4. [slideshare.net]
This chapter describes the most frequent etiologies of anal/rectal trauma and the basic clinical and instrumental investigations necessary to provide the most appropriate treatment, particularly in emergencies, when saving patient’s life is a surgeon’ [link.springer.com]
Toxins (eg, hydrogen peroxide enemas) Vasculitis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Clostridium difficile Campylobacter species Epidemiology United States data Frequencies of proctitis are associated with their individual etiologies. [emedicine.medscape.com]
It remains to be emphasized that in case of delayed presentation and an inconsistent history regarding the trauma mechanism, sexual abuse has to be excluded.  Kadish et al. described differences in epidemiology and presentation of accidental and non-accidental [afrjpaedsurg.org]
He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education. [lifeinthefastlane.com]
Epidemiology of modern battlefield colorectal trauma: a review of 977 coalition casualties. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012; 73 (06) (Suppl. 05) S503-S508 4 Cho SD, Kiraly LN, Flaherty SF, Herzig DO, Lu KC, Schreiber MA. [thieme-connect.de]
Cirillo, the epidemiology of battlefield wounds and deaths can be roughly divided into two eras with World War I as the dividing line [ 5, 6 ]. [abdominalkey.com]
[…] therapy Immunodeficiency disorders Crohn disease Syphilis (usually secondary) Papillomavirus Amebiasis Lymphogranuloma venereum Ischemia Toxins (eg, hydrogen peroxide enemas) Vasculitis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Clostridium difficile Campylobacter species Epidemiology [emedicine.medscape.com]
Pathophysiology Proctitis involves mucosal cell loss, acute inflammation of the lamina propria, eosinophilic crypt abscess, and endothelial edema of the arterioles. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Google Scholar Medline ISI Horrocks, CL. ( 2001 ) Blast injuries: biophysics, pathophysiology and management principles. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 147(1): 28 – 40. [journals.sagepub.com]
Zhu QC, Shen RR, Quin HL, Wang Y: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: clinical features, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 738–744. Author Contacts M. Gruber St. [karger.com]
It is important to rule out fecal impaction with overflow before seeking a pathophysiologic cause for uncontrolled passage of liquid stool. [aafp.org]
Demographics, injury severity, and preventive antibiotics (24-hour) were similar between groups. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
“Prevention efforts are needed to communicate sexual or sex-associated routes of transmission for hepatitis C that cannot be prevented by condoms alone”, conclude the investigators. Reference Schmidt AJ et al. [aidsmap.com]
To prevent this from happening, many surgeons place a piece of the fatty tissue in the abdomen between the two organs so they cannot connect with one another. Antibiotics should be used to prevent infection in these kinds of injuries. [autoaccident.com]
Demographics, injury severity, and preventive antibiotics (24-hour) were similar between groups. Overall infectious complication rate was 13% in the PATH group versus 31% in the PREV group ( p 0.05). [insights.ovid.com]
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