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Red Blood Cell Disorder

Red Blood Cell Disorders


Presentation

  • Schick, MD A 45 year-old woman presents with fatigue, dyspnea, and menorrhagia. V-3 - Anemia and Hashimoto Thyroiditis Caroline Cromwell, MD, and Marc J.[ashacademy.org]
  • Hemolytic conditions with spherocytosis: Case Study Two A known case of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is presented in the image on the right....[medialabinc.net]
  • In ferritin, iron is present as micelles of hydrated ferric oxide-phosphate complexes, adhering to the inner surface.[ucsdlabmed.wikidot.com]
  • Treatment & Care Options Treatment largely depends on the specific type of RBC that is present and may include: Nutritional supplements (e.g. iron, folate, vitamin B12) Splenectomy – surgical removal of the spleen Medications to alter the immune system[danafarberbostonchildrens.org]
  • The nurse observes the client and documents presenting behavior. Family members or significant others are questioned to determine whether the presenting behavior and mental status are typical.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]
Noncompliance
  • Lack of response indicates: -Noncompliance. -Continued blood loss. -Iron is not being absorbed. 26 Anemia of chronic diseases. This is the most common variant of anemia in hospitalized patients.[slideplayer.com]
Streptococcal Infection
  • Prophylactic therapy with twice-daily administration of oral penicillin in the penicillin-tolerant client has resulted in dramatic reductions in the number of pneumonia and other streptococcal infections.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]
Scleral Icterus
  • Some common general symptoms of anemia include: Pale lips, skin and hands Fatigue Lack of energy Decreased exercise tolerance Irritability Common symptoms of hemolysis (increased red blood cell breakdown) include: Jaundice Scleral icterus (yellow eyes[danafarberbostonchildrens.org]
Hydrops Fetalis
  • […] a single chromosome (α/α / ), children of these individuals are at higher risk of HbH disease or Hydrops Fetalis Blacks: one from each of the two chromosomes (α/ α/ ) Symptomatic α-thalassemia is relatively common in Asian populations and rare in black[slideplayer.com]
  • PubMed Hydrops fetalis associated with homozygosity for Hb Adana [alpha59(E8)Gly-- Asp (alpha2)]. Hemoglobin. 2010;34(4):394-401. doi: 10.3109/03630269.2010.493405. PubMed Alpha thalassaemia in Indonesia: phenotypes and molecular defects.[eijkman.go.id]
Distractibility
  • Complementary therapies and other nonpharmacologic measures, such as keeping the room warm, using distraction and relaxation techniques, proper positioning with support for painful areas, aroma therapy, therapeutic touch, and warm soaks or compresses,[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]

Workup

  • An RBC count is ordered as a part of the complete blood count (CBC), often as part of a routine physical or as part of a pre-surgical workup.[labtestsonline.org]
  • In clinical workup, the MCV will be one of the first pieces of information available; so even among clinicians who consider the “kinetic” approach more useful philosophically, morphology will remain an important element of classification and diagnosis[courses.lumenlearning.com]
Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin
  • Reference Range : M: 30-400 ng/mL; F: 10-145 ng/mL Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrins (FEP) This is a screening test, mainly used in pediatric practice to detect iron deficiency and lead poisoning.[ucsdlabmed.wikidot.com]
Liver Biopsy
  • Quantitative Iron in Liver Measurement of iron in liver biopsies is also very helpful in the diagnosis of hemochromatosis, especially in cases in which the serum iron and iron-binding capacity may be borderline abnormal.[ucsdlabmed.wikidot.com]

Treatment

  • Here we learn about the process of developing a treatment. Disease Treatments Spinal Muscular Atrophy On the verge of clinical approval, gene therapy for spinal muscle atrophy is pending FDA review.[asgct.org]
  • Treatment & Care Options Treatment largely depends on the specific type of RBC that is present and may include: Nutritional supplements (e.g. iron, folate, vitamin B12) Splenectomy – surgical removal of the spleen Medications to alter the immune system[danafarberbostonchildrens.org]
  • Treatment for erythrocytosis will vary according to the severity or progression of the disorder. Treatments may include a phlebotomy (withdrawing blood to decrease the volume), a low-dose aspirin regimen, or medications to decrease blood cells.[clearviewcancer.com]
  • Treatments and prognosis for blood diseases vary, depending on the blood condition and its severity.[calcuttayellowpages.com]
  • Serum iron may also be decreased in the early stages of treatment for anemias, e.g. the treatment of pernicious anemia with vitamin B12. In this case, hemoglobin synthesis draws iron from serum and iron stores.[ucsdlabmed.wikidot.com]

Prognosis

  • Treatments and prognosis for blood diseases vary, depending on the blood condition and its severity.[calcuttayellowpages.com]
  • Prognosis Prognosis is variable depending on the severity of the anemia, but as in other chronic hemolytic disorders, gallstones and iron overload may develop, requiring appropriate treatment.[orpha.net]
  • For example, untreated, polycythemia vera (PV) was initially thought to have a poor prognosis with a life expectancy of one to two years from the time of diagnosis.[medicinenet.com]
  • Carrying out a Safe Blood Transfusion The treatment and prognosis for red blood cell diseases will vary depending on the blood condition and its severity but there are several types which will require a blood transfusion.[lornelabs.com]

Etiology

  • Anemia can be caused by a variety of mechanisms and proper treatment depends on successful identification of the etiology of the anemia.[ucsdlabmed.wikidot.com]
  • Etiology Erythrocyte PK deficiency is caused by mutations in the PKLR gene (1q22). To date, more than 190 mutations in PKLR have been reported.[orpha.net]
  • Practically all categories in the chapter could be designated 'not otherwise specified', 'unknown etiology' or 'transient'.[icd10data.com]
  • Etiology Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. The formation of the beta chains of the hemoglobin molecule is dependent on a pair of genes.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]
  • It can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.[courses.lumenlearning.com]

Epidemiology

  • […] tetramers (γ4) Incompatible with life, fetus shows severe pallor, generalized edema and massive hepatosplenomegaly (similar to HDN) Intrauterine transfusion may be lifesaving, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be curative 44 Sideroblastic anemia Epidemiology[slideplayer.com]
  • Summary Epidemiology PK deficiency is the most frequent cause of congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia with a prevalence estimated at 1/20,000 in the general white population.[orpha.net]
  • Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion is an scholarly journal that focuses on all aspects of molecular genetics, pathophysiology and epidemiology as well as prevention, diagnosis, and management of blood disorders with current state of research in[omicsonline.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • NEXT SEMINAR • BY DR.CHINTAN SAVANI PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS[slideshare.net]
  • Bone marrow fibrosis: pathophysiology and clinical significance of increased bone marrow stromal fibres. Br J Haematol 2007;139:351–62. Web of Science Google Scholar 5. Farolino DL, Rustagi PK, Currie MS, Doeblin TD, Logue GL.[degruyter.com]
  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test The functional red cell membrane is composed of a cholesterol and phospholipid bilayer anchored by integral proteins to an elastic[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion is an scholarly journal that focuses on all aspects of molecular genetics, pathophysiology and epidemiology as well as prevention, diagnosis, and management of blood disorders with current state of research in[omicsonline.org]
  • In addition, there is great variation among clients in the severity of the disease and the onset of complications. r Pathophysiology The primary problem in this hereditary disorder is the formation of abnormal beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]

Prevention

  • Pernicious anemia (B12 deficiency): An autoimmune condition that prevents the body from absorbing enough B12 in the diet. Besides anemia, nerve damage (neuropathy) can eventually result. High doses of B12 prevent long-term problems.[calcuttayellowpages.com]
  • Interventions aim at preventing or halting the process of infection, controlling infection, and initiating early, effective treatment regimens for specific infections. PREVENTION/EARLY DETECTION.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]
  • In addition, they have a special property by which they prevent and are now even considered to treat graft versus host disease.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • The excess red blood cells increase the risk for blood clots which could prevent blood flow to major organs such as the heart, lungs, or brain.[clearviewcancer.com]
  • High doses of B12 prevent long-term problems. Aplastic anemia : In people with aplastic anemia, the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells, including red blood cells.[webmd.com]

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