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Respiratory Arrest


Presentation

  • […] to 5 minutes. 4 – 6 Maximal respiratory depression after fentanyl administration occurs 5 minutes after administration, is dose dependent, and is most common when combined with a sedating agent, such as midazolam or propofol. 3, 4, 6, 7 However, the present[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The independent predictors of death within 24 hours after arrest in an ICU were sex, the presenting rhythm and the duration of CPR. Predictors of later death (eight months or more after arrest) were age and duration of CPR.[cmaj.ca]
Hypoxemia
  • If respiratory arrest remains without any treatment, cardiac arrest will occur within minutes of hypoxemia, hypercapnia or both.[en.wikipedia.org]
Aspiration
  • Although in most instances it is relatively harmless, gastroesophageal reflux in infancy may be responsible for failure to thrive, blood loss anemia resulting from peptic esophagitis, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia, The importance of the last has[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Endotracheal tubes contain high-volume, low-pressure balloon cuffs to minimize air leakage and the risk of aspiration.[en.wikipedia.org]
Hypoventilation
  • Central nervous system disorders, such as stroke and tumors, may cause hypoventilation. Drugs may decrease respiratory effort as well, such as opioids, sedative-hypnotics, and alcohol.[en.wikipedia.org]
Failure to Thrive
  • Although in most instances it is relatively harmless, gastroesophageal reflux in infancy may be responsible for failure to thrive, blood loss anemia resulting from peptic esophagitis, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia, The importance of the last has[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Gagging
  • If non-comatose patients are given muscle relaxants before the insertion of the laryngeal mask airway, they may gag and aspirate when the drugs are worn off.[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • His laceration was repaired and he was transferred to a nearby facility for definitive treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Practitioners must tweak valve settings to accurately determine each of their patients to avoid hypoventilation or hyperventilation. [9] Treatment [ edit ] Treatment involves clearing the airway, establishing an alternate airway, and providing artificial[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Death rattle: Prevalence, prevention, and treatment. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002;23:310-317.[reliasmedia.com]

Prognosis

  • While the ultimate prognosis may be similar to the patient who is unaware, it may feel like suicide.[reliasmedia.com]

Epidemiology

  • Use of intensive care at the end of life in the United States: An epidemiologic study. Crit Care Med 2004;32:638-643. Smedira NG, et al. Withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill. N Eng J Med 1990;322:309-315.[reliasmedia.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Cuffed tubes were made originally for adults and children over 8 years old, but cuffed tubes have been used in infants and younger children to prevent air leakage. Cuffed tubes can be inflated to the extent needed to prevent air leakage.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Anything that prevents the face mask from fitting tightly against your face, such as a beard or long sideburns, may cause leakage.[cdc.gov]
  • A key strategy to prevent or mitigate arrests needs to include earlier identification and response. Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge the work of Mrs. Patrica Thompson, who assisted with data abstraction and editing.[cmaj.ca]
  • Death rattle: Prevalence, prevention, and treatment. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002;23:310-317.[reliasmedia.com]

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