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Retinal Perforation

Break Retinal


Presentation

  • But intraoperatively the clinical presentation of the breaks prompted us to look for signs of accidental perforation.[ijo.in]
  • In this volume, the seminars on surgical retina presented by renowned experts during ESASO’s activities are collected. Many specialists have contributed their knowledge to make this volume a device to give practical support.[books.google.com]
  • The visual acuity at presentation was 6/24 R and 6/6 L. There was no history of ocular trauma or inflammation. A superotemporal retinal tear was identified and, since this was very peripheral, non-drainage surgery was planned.[bjo.bmj.com]
  • […] not already present.[retinalphysician.com]
Osteoporosis
  • Stenosis Lumbar Puncture Malaria Malnourishment, Adult Medical Decision-Making Capacity Melanoma Meningitis, Adult Menopause Migraine Mononucleosis Murmur, Diastolic Murmur, Systolic Myasthenia Gravis Myocardial Infarction Opiates and Abdominal Pain Osteoporosis[jamaevidence.mhmedical.com]
Strabismus
  • J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1992 ;29: 273-275. 7. Mittleman DM, Bakos IM. The role of retinal cryopexy in the management of experimental perforation of the eye during strabismus surgery. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1984;21:186-189. 8.[healio.com]
  • PURPOSE: Perforation of the retina is a major complication of strabismus surgery. The reported incidence of perforation varies from 0.13% to 12%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Get comprehensive coverage across key subspecialties—oculoplastic, strabismus, cornea, refractive, cataract, glaucoma, ocular tumors, and vitreoretinal—and master the basics for every common procedure.[books.google.com]
  • Penetration of the sclera occurs in the normal course of strabismus surgery, while perforation of the sclera represents a complication.[link.springer.com]
  • Encircling buckles may result in damage to the superior oblique or superior rectus tendons producing problematic vertical strabismus.[eyeworld.org]
Retinal Pigmentation
  • Three months after the onset of inflammation, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation was noted around the site of perforation and the right macula.[bjo.bmj.com]
  • The retina “wants” to stay attached through a variety of systems: the negative pressure gradient between the vitreous and the choroid; the pumping mechanism of retinal pigment epithelium; and subcellular “glue” components of the retinal pigment epithelium[retina-specialist.com]
  • Retinal detachment is separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium.[smartypance.com]
  • Retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities. Retinal detachment (less than 5%). Prognosis [ 19 ] Several factors affect outcomes.[patient.info]
  • Tractional retinal detachment A tractional retinal detachment occurs when fibrous or fibrovascular tissue, caused by an injury, inflammation or neovascularization, pulls the sensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium.[nioeyes.com]
Retinal Scar
  • Similarly, in some people with retinal lesions such as lattice retinal degeneration or chorio-retinal scars, the vitreous membrane may be abnormally adherent to the retina. If enough traction occurs the retina may tear at these points.[en.wikipedia.org]
Ectopia Lentis
  • The most serious sequelae of scierai perforation are retinal detachments,9 endophthalmitis,10 and phthisis bulbi11; other, less devastating consequences such as cataracts, ectopia lentie, and glaucoma also have been documented.[healio.com]
Anterior Uveitis
  • There was a bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis. No posterior segment inflammation was noted. He was started on topical steroids and mydriatics. Five days later both visual acuities were reduced to 6/60.[bjo.bmj.com]
Withdrawn
  • If recognised, the needle can be withdrawn and the anaesthetic solution can be injected in the proper location.[ijo.in]

Treatment

  • The aim of treatment is to prevent further damage to the eye and limit problems with sight. There are two key stages to treatment, with the first stage being surgery and the second stage is recovery.[medic8.com]
  • Put the very latest scientific and genetic discoveries, diagnostic imaging methods, drug therapies, treatment recommendations, and surgical techniques to work in your practice.[books.google.com]
  • In the event of non-resolution of vitreous haemorrhage within 7 to 10 days, vitrectomy combined with intraoperative treatment of breaks is advocated. This approach is quite effective in the prevention of retinal detachment.[ijo.in]
  • It is important to recognise the significance of bilateral uveitis following even the smallest ocular perforation since early diagnosis and vigorous treatment of sympathetic ophthalmia are commonly associated with a good visual prognosis. 6 View Abstract[bjo.bmj.com]

Prognosis

  • It is important to recognise the significance of bilateral uveitis following even the smallest ocular perforation since early diagnosis and vigorous treatment of sympathetic ophthalmia are commonly associated with a good visual prognosis. 6 View Abstract[bjo.bmj.com]
  • Preventing a macular hole It is not possible to prevent a macular hole, though attending regular eye tests (every 12 months if possible) will help to ensure that any problems are diagnosed and treated early, which will improve prognosis.[medic8.com]
  • Prognosis [ 19 ] Several factors affect outcomes.[patient.info]
  • In case of perforations, there is a risk of infection, as a foreign body may remain inside the eye, thus leading to a worse prognosis. In most severe cases, the eyeball integrity may be endangered.[icrcat.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis IV heparin angioplasty /- stenting catheter-directed thrombolysis surgical thrombectomy Complications significant risk of massive pulmonary embolism, even with anticoagulation 40-60% develop gangrene of the periphery 3 due to increased[radiopaedia.org]

Etiology

  • Etiology Usually idiopathic ( Other risk factors include cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, laser injury, hypertension, very high myopia and diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic features It may rarely be an incidental finding.[risingretina.com]
  • Examination of the anterior segment is important, as it may give clues to the etiology, but is also helpful in determining the quality of the view that the surgeon will get during surgery.[clinicalgate.com]
  • Hemorrhagic retinal detachment can be a presentation of acute promyelocytic leukemia, and thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation may be the etiologies.[e-tjo.org]
  • Theories to explain the etiology of RD were proposed by Von Graefe, Girard-Teulon, Iwanoff, de Wecker at the end of the 19th century.[institut-vision.org]
  • [Retinal detachment in patients from Zaire: etiological, clinical aspects, surgical treatment]. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol 1986; 218: 83-93. 18.Sasaki K, Ideta H, Yonemoto J, Tanaka S, Hirose A, Oka C.[jpma.org.pk]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology DVT affects as many as 2 million Americans every year. The majority of patients are treated medically, with anticoagulation being the mainstay of therapy to promote thrombus resolution and prevent propagation and embolization.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated at around 0.8% in several studies and incidence at around 8 per 100,000 per year. [ 1, 2, 3 ] Around 10% of macular holes are bilateral at diagnosis. [ 3 ] Women are more commonly affected than men.[patient.info]
  • Epidemiologic characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Kumamoto, Japan. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1995; 233: 772-6. 19.Zhang CF, Hu C. High incidence of retinal detachment secondary to macular hole in a Chinese population.[jpma.org.pk]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Comprehensively updated to reflect everything you need to know regarding retinal diagnosis, treatment, development, structure, function, and pathophysiology, this monumental ophthalmology reference work equips you with expert answers to virtually any[books.google.com]
  • Pathophysiology In PAD, the thrombosis involves only major deep venous channels of the extremity, thus sparing collateral veins. The venous drainage is decreased but still present; the lack of cyanosis differentiates this entity from PCD.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Acute deep venous thrombosis: pathophysiology and natural history. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston KW eds. Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery 1, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2014: 745-9. 6) Chinsakchai K, ten Duis K, Moll FL, et al.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology and management of subretinal hemorrhage. Surv Ophthalmol 1997; 42 :195–213. 18. Glatt H, Machemer R. Experimental subretinal hemorrhage in rabbits. Am J Ophthalmol 1982; 94 :762–73. [Figure 1], [Figure 2][e-tjo.org]

Prevention

  • Preventing a macular hole It is not possible to prevent a macular hole, though attending regular eye tests (every 12 months if possible) will help to ensure that any problems are diagnosed and treated early, which will improve prognosis.[medic8.com]
  • The topics range from prevention to state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques and the latest surgical treatment options for many eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.This publication provides the ophthalmologist[books.google.com]
  • While some penetrating traumatic injuries can be prevented or minimized by wearing protective eyewear, not all injuries are preventable.[kadrmaseyecare.com]
  • Laser photocoagulation of the retina stops the development of dystrophy and prevents retinal detachment. It is also effective in prevention of progressing changes in the eye fundus.[en.excimerclinic.ru]
  • Early complete EAV should prevent RD, cyclitic membranes, and hypotony ( Video 9 ). 2. Endophotocoagulation of the anterior ischemic retina will help to prevent secondary neovascular glaucoma. 3.[retinalphysician.com]

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