Reversible ischemic neurological deficit is a type of stroke due to the occlusion of blood supply to the brain leading to ischemia and neurological deficits which recover from 24 hours and up to a few weeks. It should be differentiated from a transient ischemic attack in which the neurological deficits do not last longer than a day. However, currently the term reversible ischemic neurological deficit is rarely used.
Reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND) is defined as a stroke due to ischemic brain injury with weakness, paresis/paralysis, speech abnormalities, etc which last from anywhere between a day to 21 days followed by either a complete recovery or residual deficits. Loeb et al  described the following clinical presentation in RIND:
- rare condition with an incidence of less than 5% amongst all strokes
- commonly occurs in the territory of the internal carotid artery with almost 70% occlusion of the artery
- is of sudden onset
- loss of consciousness is rare
- there are no specific imaging findings
- arteriography often shows arterial occlusion
- is associated with a poor prognosis and death in patients with massive hemorrhagic infarcts.
The clinical features may completely dissipate if thrombolysis is performed soon after the formation of the thrombus .
RIND indicates a tiny brain stroke with recovery within a few weeks and should be differentiated from a transient ischemic attack (TIA), which is associated with a reversal of symptoms within twenty-four hours. Currently, the term "RIND" is not used commonly  as the diagnosis is based on tissue appearance on imaging studies rather than on the duration of the symptoms.
Entire Body System
Obesity, hyperlipidemia, sedentary lifestyle, and cigarette smoking, are major factors (they are also implicated as causes of coronary atherosclerosis and insufficiency). [dartmouth.edu]
Claus ( German ), Vangelis Katsoulas ( Greek ), Roberto Marchesi ( Italian ), Robin van der Vliet ( Esperanto ), Reno Rake ( Indonesian ), Nahuel Rodríguez ( Spanish ), Gao Pan ( Chinese ), Hoài Sang Lăng ( Vietnamese ) EUdict is online since May 9, 2005 [eudict.com]
Total number of language pairs : 472 Total number of translations : 14 New : Korean Turkish, Serbian Albanian, Dutch German, Latvian Russian Improved : English Albanian, English Serbian, English Croatian, Croatian Polish Options There are several ways [eudict.com]
The AHA currently states that the risk of stroke associated with HRT appears low but needs further study. use of birth control pills, or oral contraceptives inflammatory processes, such as a chronic infection with chlamydia Several recent studies have [medicineonline.com]
• Malnutrition found in 49% of patients admitted to rehabilitation in recent study and was associated with a prolonged length of stay and slower rate of functional gains. • Malnourished patients also found to have higher stress reaction and higher frequency [demosmedical.com]
Abstract The benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CE) in preventing recurrent stroke and improving survival in the patient who has sustained a reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND) or stroke is still controversial. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Doppler testing of the internal carotid arteries is important to diagnose carotid artery stenosis as strokes can be associated with up to 70% stenosis. [symptoma.com]
Completed stroke (disorder) Extension of cerebrovascular accident Extension of cerebrovascular accident (disorder) Extension of stroke Inferior cerebellar artery syndrome Ischaemic stroke Ischaemic stroke without coma Ischemic stroke Ischemic stroke [averbis.com]
She also presented with throbbing headache on the same day. On admission, muscle weakness in her left leg, lower left quadrantanopia and left lower extremity deep sensory disturbance were observed. [unboundmedicine.com]
The diagnosis of RIND is based on a thorough history, physical, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive evaluation along with laboratory and imaging studies. History should elicit the onset, duration, and progress of the neurological deficits as well as a history of co-morbid factors like hypertension, diabetes, etc.
Laboratory tests include complete blood count, blood sugar levels, lipid profile and other tests indicated by clinical presentation. An electrocardiogram may show evidence of cardiac conduction anomalies and while echocardiography may reveal the source of the thrombus and cardiac function. Doppler testing of the internal carotid arteries is important to diagnose carotid artery stenosis as strokes can be associated with up to 70% stenosis.
Currently, the features of the brain tissue on imaging studies like high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rather than the time (duration) of deficits is used to detect the condition . CT scans can demonstrate hemorrhage while MRI can detect even tiny infarctions. Several reports indicate that there are very few differences between TIAs and RIND on imaging studies  with extracranial abnormalities appearing identical in patients with TIAs, RIND and minor strokes  . This suggests that the three types of strokes differ quantitatively but not qualitatively and are therefore regarded as a continuation of the same pathological process  . The infarcts are usually of the lacunar type in all three groups with RIND patients having small deep infarcts . Arteriography may help to identify the occlusive thrombus in these patients.
QT, RR, ST Intervals
Other ECG Findings
- Loeb C, Priano A, Alabano C. Strokes with full recovery. In: Meyer JS, Lechner H, Reivich M, Eichorn O, editors. Cerebral Vascular Disease. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme. 1973: 15-21.
- Easton JD, Saver JL, Albers GW, et al. Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Stroke. 2009;40:2276–2293.
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- Barnett HJM. Stroke prevention. In: Ross Russell RW, ed. Vascular diseases of the nervous system. Edinburgh 1983; 405-27.
- Koudstaal PJ, van Gijn J, Frenken CWGM, et al. TIA, RIND, minor stroke: a continuum, or different subgroups? Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. 1992; 55:95-97