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Reynold Syndrome

Reynolds Syndrome


Presentation

  • The patient presented with fatigue, pruritus and dyspnea on exertion complaints. Liver function tests showed elevation of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.[journalmc.org]
  • Ginkgo leaf extracts, present in licensed herbal remedies such as Ginkgoforce Ginkgo biloba tablets, have a specific action in increasing blow flow in the small blood vessels known as capillaries.[avogel.co.uk]
  • The condition presents an intricate vascular disorder in which blood vessels overreact to exposure to cold temperature or emotional stress.[healthrenewal.co.za]
  • In the remaining 20% of patients with Raynaud symptoms, a causative underlying disease (eg, systemic sclerosis) will be evident at initial presentation or diagnosed subsequently.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Signs In primary Raynaud's phenomenon there will usually be nothing to find, as patients rarely present during the event.[patient.info]
Down Syndrome
  • الصفحة 116 - Antenatal maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: results of a demonstration project. ‏[books.google.com]
  • syndrome ダウン症候群 JohnLangdon Haydon Down (1828-1896) British doctor Dressler ドレスラー Dressler syndrome ドレスラー症候群 Drummond ドラモンド Drummond sign ドラモンド徴候 Duane デュアン Duane's syndrome デュアン症候群 Dubin-Johnson デュビン・ジョンソン Dubin-Johnson syndrome デュビン・ジョンソン症候群 Dubos[jams.med.or.jp]
Anorexia
  • In 2008 the patient was admitted to the hospital with anorexia, dyspepsia, ascites, abdominal pain and weight loss. Endoscopy showed esophageal varices and abdominal computed tomography revealed cirrhotic liver.[journalmc.org]
  • […] associations: Connective tissue disorders : scleroderma [10] Systemic lupus erythematosus Rheumatoid arthritis Sjögren's syndrome Dermatomyositis Polymyositis Mixed connective tissue disease Cold agglutinin disease Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Eating disorders : Anorexia[en.wikipedia.org]
Fatigue
  • The patient presented with fatigue, pruritus and dyspnea on exertion complaints. Liver function tests showed elevation of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.[journalmc.org]
  • ., by working as a frozen food packer) Others : Physical trauma, such as that sustained in auto accidents or other traumatic events Lyme disease Hypothyroidism Cryoglobulinemia malignancy Chronic fatigue syndrome Reflex sympathetic dystrophy Carpal tunnel[en.wikipedia.org]
Splenomegaly
  • Examine any joints that are sore, palpate the abdomen to exclude hepato/splenomegaly and check the lymph fields to detect any evidence of malignancy.[patient.info]
Abdominal Pain
  • In 2008 the patient was admitted to the hospital with anorexia, dyspepsia, ascites, abdominal pain and weight loss. Endoscopy showed esophageal varices and abdominal computed tomography revealed cirrhotic liver.[journalmc.org]
Dyspepsia
  • In 2008 the patient was admitted to the hospital with anorexia, dyspepsia, ascites, abdominal pain and weight loss. Endoscopy showed esophageal varices and abdominal computed tomography revealed cirrhotic liver.[journalmc.org]
Jaundice
  • The liver disease is characterized by pruritis, jaundice, hepatomegaly, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and positive serum mitochondrial autoantibodies, all consistent with primary biliary cirrhosis.[malacards.org]
  • Typical clinical features include jaundice, elevated blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcinosis cutis, telangiectasias, and pruritus. Raynaud\'s phenomenon may be an early clinical feature.[checkorphan.org]
Hepatomegaly
  • The liver disease is characterized by pruritis, jaundice, hepatomegaly, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and positive serum mitochondrial autoantibodies, all consistent with primary biliary cirrhosis.[malacards.org]
Pruritus
  • MalaCards based summary : Reynolds Syndrome, also known as primary biliary cirrhosis, scleroderma, raynaud disease, and telangiectasia, is related to scleroderma, familial progressive and primary biliary cholangitis, and has symptoms including pruritus[malacards.org]
  • The patient presented with fatigue, pruritus and dyspnea on exertion complaints. Liver function tests showed elevation of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.[journalmc.org]
  • Typical clinical features include jaundice, elevated blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcinosis cutis, telangiectasias, and pruritus. Raynaud\'s phenomenon may be an early clinical feature.[checkorphan.org]
Calcinosis Cutis
  • Typical clinical features include jaundice, elevated blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcinosis cutis, telangiectasias, and pruritus. Raynaud\'s phenomenon may be an early clinical feature.[checkorphan.org]
  • Scleroderma is mainly limited to CREST syndrome, which includes calcinosis cutis (calcium deposits in the skin), Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction (acid reflux and decrease in motility in the esophagus), sclerodactyly, and telangiectasis.[malacards.org]

Workup

Liver Biopsy
  • Although the patient refused liver biopsy, PBC diagnosis was established. In 2008 the patient was admitted to the hospital with anorexia, dyspepsia, ascites, abdominal pain and weight loss.[journalmc.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment - Reynolds syndrome Not supplied. Resources - Reynolds syndrome Not supplied.[checkorphan.org]
  • Hayes, who was not involved in Reynolds' treatment, but commented on the effect of grief in general, said it's unknown what chronic medical conditions Reynolds might have had.[nbcnews.com]
  • Patients were seen after two and four weeks of treatment and at the end of the 10-week treatment phase. Blood samples pre- and post-treatment were taken for haemorrheology.[raysahelian.com]
  • The effects of each treatment are accumulative, and therefore a course of treatments will be recommended.[healthrenewal.co.za]
  • As with any alternative treatment option, or taking any supplement, be sure to talk to your doctor before adding it to your treatment plan.[mollysfund.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis - Reynolds syndrome Not supplied. Treatment - Reynolds syndrome Not supplied. Resources - Reynolds syndrome Not supplied.[checkorphan.org]
  • Expected results The prognosis for most people with Raynaud's disease is very good. In general, primary Raynaud's disease has the best prognosis, with a relatively small chance for serious complications (1%).[encyclopedia.com]
  • What is the prognosis and treatment for this disease? The condition you are describing in your mother's fingers is compatible with Raynaud's phenomenon.[medicinenet.com]
  • Alternative medicine [ edit ] Evidence does not support the use of alternative medicine, including acupuncture and laser therapy. [3] Prognosis [ edit ] The prognosis of primary Raynaud syndrome is often very favorable, with no mortality and little morbidity[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Prognosis Primary cases tend to do well after diagnosis and most patients learn to adapt to the condition, using basic measures vasodilators: An underlying disorder develops in 13% of cases of the primary form.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • "Raynaud Phenomenon: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology". 6 December 2017.[en.wikipedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Affects 3-4% of U.S. adult population Predominately affects women by 3 to 1 ratio Onset from Puberty to age 30 years Family History responsible in 20-30% of patients III.[fpnotebook.com]
  • […] to interact and contribute. [ 1 ] Note that Raynaud also has a type of gangrene (symmetrical gangrene of the extremities) and a sign (symmetrical, mottled cyanosis of extremities with patches of erythema and excessive sweating) named after him. [ 2 ] Epidemiology[patient.info]
  • Circulation 2003; 108 : 2672–2678 37) Nugent AW, Daubeney PEF, Chondros P, et al: National Australian Childhood Cardiomyopathy Study: The epidemiology of childhood cardiomyopathy in Australia.[jpccs.jp]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • "Raynaud Phenomenon: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology". 6 December 2017.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Pathophysiology Exaggerated response to cold Temperature s Increased Alpha Adrenergic Receptor responsiveness May be primary idiopathic or secondary cause IV. Causes: Secondary Causes of Raynaud's Phenomenon V. Causes: Provocative Factors VI.[fpnotebook.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention - Reynolds syndrome Not supplied. Diagnosis - Reynolds syndrome In the last decade, with the aid of labial salivary gland biopsies, more patients with Reynold’s syndrome have been reported in the medical literature.[checkorphan.org]
  • Prevention and care Prevention measures are important in primary and secondary Raynaud's syndrome regardless of the severity. Initial simple care: Keep the body warm, especially the extremities. Wear warm clothing in colder environments.[familydoctor.co.nz]
  • The goal is to prevent and manage symptoms, adopt a healthy lifestyle and improve blood circulation.[thebabycorner.com]
  • Is it possible to prevent Raynaud's phenomenon? Raynaud's phenomenon can be prevented by avoiding the precipitating factors, such as cold or heat exposure, smoking , etc. Certain medications should be avoided.[medicinenet.com]
  • Getting medical help may prevent a worsening of symptoms and serious complications.[medicalnewstoday.com]

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