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Rhododendron Poisoning

Rhododendron Species Poisoning


Presentation

  • Some of the mentioned species may also contain the toxic glycoside, " Arbutin " also present mainly in the Rose family ( Rosaceae ).[chm.bris.ac.uk]
  • (It was present in Britain in previous interglacials but did not re-colonise after the last glacial period.) Rhododendron spreads by layering and copious seed production (over 1m seeds per bush).[gccv.org.uk]
  • […] weak; they suffered from the cold, and one dried(sic) from pneumonia; they also developed a mild condition of rickets, but did not exhibit symptoms of poisoning by the toxic principle of the laurel and rhododendron. some evidence of rickets was also present[accessdata.fda.gov]
  • Russell, and Faik Ahmet Ayaz. “ Clinical Review of Grayanotoxin/mad Honey Poisoning past and Present .” Clinical Toxicology 46.5 (2008): 437-42. 2.[naturespoisons.com]
  • The Rhododendrons cover the land for mile after mile, and when in blossom present a most beautiful appearance.”[badbeekeepingblog.com]
Physician
  • Douglas R Landry, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sentara Bayside Hospital Douglas R Landry, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Further reading • A tour of the medicinal garden of the Royal College of Physicians by Dr Henry Oakeley, published by RCP • A year in the Medicinal Garden of the Royal College of Physicians by Dr Henry Oakeley, published by RCP • Rhododendron yakushimanum[missapismellifera.com]
  • The most dangerous plants contain one of these three chemicals: If your child eats any amount of these three plant groups, contact your physician or the Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 immediately.[chop.edu]
Veterinarian
  • This essential reference allows veterinarians to not only identify poisonous plants, but also includes the toxic properties of the plant and the clinical signs that can be expected in animals that ingest the plants.[books.google.com]
Pneumonia
  • During this interval the deer became very thin and weak; they suffered from the cold, and one dried(sic) from pneumonia; they also developed a mild condition of rickets, but did not exhibit symptoms of poisoning by the toxic principle of the laurel and[accessdata.fda.gov]
  • The course is short and the outcome may be death from aspiration pneumonia or complete recovery. Called also azalea.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Vomiting
  • We then experience a variety ofsymptoms such as stomach ache, headache, sweating, skin rashes, diarrhoea, palpitations, and vomiting.[books.google.com]
  • Hyacinth Hyacinth Bulbs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. May be fatal. Narcissus Narcissus Bulbs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. May be fatal. Oleander Nerium Leaves, branches Extremely poisonous.[provenwinners.com]
  • Two to three hours later, other signs of poisoning may occur, including nausea, vomiting, sweating, confusion, and slowing of the heart rate. There have been reports of seizures with severe overdoses.[chop.edu]
  • Symptoms: Headache, stomachache, vomiting, diarrhea, low temperature, dilated pupils, breathing problems and numbness. Marie Iannotti What would fall be without mums? For the most part, mums are not dangerous.[thespruce.com]
  • According to Wikipedia , symptoms include salivation, perspiration, vomiting, dizziness, and low blood pressure. The condition is rarely fatal and usually abates within 24 hours.[honeybeesuite.com]
Nausea
  • Hyacinth Hyacinth Bulbs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. May be fatal. Narcissus Narcissus Bulbs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. May be fatal. Oleander Nerium Leaves, branches Extremely poisonous.[provenwinners.com]
  • Two to three hours later, other signs of poisoning may occur, including nausea, vomiting, sweating, confusion, and slowing of the heart rate. There have been reports of seizures with severe overdoses.[chop.edu]
  • However, consumption of enough foilage (especially the leaves), berries of flowers can give symptoms of vomiting and stomach upset, very reduced blood pressure and nausea six hours afterwards.[chm.bris.ac.uk]
  • Poisonous Parts: All Symptoms: burning in the mouth, salivation, watery eyes and nose, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, difficulty breathing, weakness, abdominal pain and progressive paralysis of arms and legs.[thespruce.com]
  • Generally, only mild symptoms such as mouth irritation, nausea, and vomiting are expected from such cases.[poison.org]
Diarrhea
  • Symptoms: Headache, stomachache, vomiting, diarrhea, low temperature, dilated pupils, breathing problems and numbness. Marie Iannotti What would fall be without mums? For the most part, mums are not dangerous.[thespruce.com]
  • Unripe tomatoes and the green "eyes" of potatoes contain solanine that can cause moderate nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhea. Eating large quantities can cause drowsiness, sweating, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate.[chop.edu]
  • Hyacinth Hyacinth Bulbs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. May be fatal. Narcissus Narcissus Bulbs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. May be fatal. Oleander Nerium Leaves, branches Extremely poisonous.[provenwinners.com]
  • ., drooling, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, inappetance), cardiovascular (e.g., abnormal heart rate, heart arrhythmias, weakness, hypotension), and central nervous system signs (e.g., depression, tremors, transient blindness, seizures, coma, etc.[outdoors.stackexchange.com]
Food Intolerance
  • From reviews of the hardback edition: '...explains the difference between food intolerance (which we can all suffer from) and food allergy (which is very rare).[books.google.com]
Drooling
  • They say that one of the first indications of Rhododendron poisoning is salivation, I suppose you could have a campfire in your yard and see if the smoke makes you drool...[outdoors.stackexchange.com]
Hypotension
  • This report describes our experience treating a patient admitted to our emergency department with symptoms of dizziness, hypotension, and bradycardia, which resulted from consuming azalea blossoms.[springerlink.com]
  • Diagnostic Considerations In the differential diagnosis, consider entities in which GI upset is associated with hypotension, dysrhythmias (eg, bradycardias, tachycardias), or altered mental status; these are described by the acronym TIPS AEIOU, as follows[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • ., abnormal heart rate, heart arrhythmias, weakness, hypotension), and central nervous system signs (e.g., depression, tremors, transient blindness, seizures, coma, etc.). The overall prognosis is fair with treatment.[outdoors.stackexchange.com]
  • During a toxic episode patients may experience bradycardia (low heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure), which explains the multiple reports of fainting.[naturespoisons.com]
Palpitations
  • We then experience a variety ofsymptoms such as stomach ache, headache, sweating, skin rashes, diarrhoea, palpitations, and vomiting.[books.google.com]
  • Professor Stout and Dr Tiedeken found that the nectar’s grayanotoxins cause palpitations, paralysis and death within hours – for honey bees.[adventuresinbeeland.com]
Eruptions
  • The ridge line of the Appalachian mountains is erupting in rhododendron scent at this moment. People have long noticed the sweet honey smell of rhododendron flowers and wondered why bumblebees liked them but honey bees didn’t.[badbeekeepingblog.com]
Seizure
  • There have been reports of seizures with severe overdoses. Azalea leaves are particularly dangerous; swallowing three or more leaves is cause for concern.[chop.edu]
  • […] differential diagnosis, consider entities in which GI upset is associated with hypotension, dysrhythmias (eg, bradycardias, tachycardias), or altered mental status; these are described by the acronym TIPS AEIOU, as follows: Trauma Infection Psychogenic causes Seizure[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • ., depression, tremors, transient blindness, seizures, coma, etc.). The overall prognosis is fair with treatment.[outdoors.stackexchange.com]
  • This causes a range of symptoms based on where the activated cells are located, such as muscle weakness, vomiting, sweating, salivation, seizures, and either dangerously slow or dangerously fast heartbeat, depending on the dose.[aschoonerofscience.com]
Irritability
  • As a skin irritant, it only causes mild and short-term irritation, so you might not even have noticed that it bothered you. However, if the berries are ingested, it is highly toxic and possibly fatal.[thespruce.com]
  • Dumb Cane) Dieffenbachia All parts Intense burning and irritation of the mouth and tongue. Death can occur if base of the tongue swells enough to block the air passage of the throat.[provenwinners.com]
  • Chomping on some rhododendron can lead to stomach irritation and abdominal pain. Even worse, it might cause an abnormal heart rate, convulsions, coma and perhaps death [source: The Flower Expert ].[adventure.howstuffworks.com]
  • Generally, only mild symptoms such as mouth irritation, nausea, and vomiting are expected from such cases.[poison.org]
Vertigo
  • Differential Diagnoses Atrial Fibrillation Benign Positional Vertigo in Emergency Medicine Child Abuse Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine Depression and Suicide First-Degree Atrioventricular Block Herb Poisoning Mesenteric Ischemia[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • The authors offer first aid recommendations and discuss advanced medical treatment based on the latest published literature.[books.google.com]
  • The overall prognosis is fair with treatment. When burned the gryanotoxin is destroyed at temperatures of 150 degrees Celsius and above, and no evidence of toxicity has been found in the smoke or coals of the rhododendron plant.[outdoors.stackexchange.com]
  • The gathering of this information was originally undertaken because of interest in an extract for the possible treatment of high blood pressure.[scholar.lib.vt.edu]

Prognosis

  • The overall prognosis is fair with treatment. When burned the gryanotoxin is destroyed at temperatures of 150 degrees Celsius and above, and no evidence of toxicity has been found in the smoke or coals of the rhododendron plant.[outdoors.stackexchange.com]

Prevention

  • However, it is best to tackle rhododendron before it becomes entrenched, because the toxic leaf litter can prevent re-establishment of native plants for years after a stand has been removed.[gccv.org.uk]
  • The researchers suggested that some flowering plants used chemical defenses to prevent all their pollen being used by the bees to feed their larvae, rather than to pollinate the flower.[missapismellifera.com]
  • It binds to specific sodium ion channels in cell membranes (which I’ve talked about before ) and prevents inactivation, causing persistent activation of muscle and nerve cells.[aschoonerofscience.com]
  • Grayanotoxins exert their toxicity by binding to sodium ion channels on cell membranes and preventing them from closing quickly, like aconitine .[naturespoisons.com]

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