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Rickettsia Rickettsii


Presentation

  • Abstract The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) endemic area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A lethal case of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is presented. Clinical features were initially of gastrointestinal involvement and evolved with progression to septic shock, meningoencephalitis and death on the 6th day of illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sera from late-convalescent patients were generally minimally reactive or nonreactive in the latex-R. rickettsii test unless anti-R. rickettsii IgM was present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a probable case of atypical fulminant Brazilian spotted fever that presented full-blown septic shock associated with Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and delayed uncharacteristic rash with an over four-fold increase in reciprocal IgM[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study confirms for the first time R. rickettsii as the etiological agent of a lethal spotted fever group rickettsiosis in human patients from Espírito Santo state.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic
  • The nurse rabbit of uninfected lice remained asymptomatic and seronegative. Those rabbits used to feed infected lice developed bacteremia and seroconverted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A cluster of tick-borne infections: association with military training and asymptomatic infections due to Rickettsia rickettsii. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86321- 325 Google Scholar Crossref 13. Yevich SJSanchez JLDeFraites RF et al.[jamanetwork.com]
  • During the summer of 2001, French United Nations troops in Kosovo collected ticks on asymptomatic soldiers and dogs in the Morina region.[doi.org]
Military Personnel
  • Seroepidemiology of infections due to spotted fever group rickettsiae and Ehrlichia species in military personnel exposed in areas of the United States where such infections are endemic. J Infect Dis. 1995;1711266- 1273 Google Scholar Crossref 14.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Seroepidemiology of infections due to spotted fever group rickettsiae and Ehrlichia species in military personnel exposed in areas of the United States where such infections are endemic. J. Infect. Dis. 171 : 1266 -1273. 371. Yu, X., Y. Jin, M.[doi.org]
Infectious Mononucleosis
  • .): Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever ). Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, 1956, 30, 453-465. Note: In the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC VR 367 (without dash).[bacterio.net]
Sepsis
  • Brazilian practitioners should be aware of the possibility of Brazilian spotted fever as a cause of fulminant primary sepsis with ARDS; improved laboratory methods are necessary for the rapid diagnosis of such cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Respiratory Distress
  • We report a probable case of atypical fulminant Brazilian spotted fever that presented full-blown septic shock associated with Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and delayed uncharacteristic rash with an over four-fold increase in reciprocal IgM[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Severe cases, including those of patients with encephalitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, multiorgan failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, have been reported ( 9 , 158 , 159 , 161 ).[doi.org]
Red Eye
  • During the initial stages of the disease, the patient could experience: fever nausea vomiting loss of appetite conjunctival infection (red eyes) The classic Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever rash occurs in about 90% of patients and develops 2 to 5 days after[en.wikipedia.org]
Skin Lesion
  • RESULTS: The multiplex PCR assay was specific at discriminating each species from FFPE controls of unrelated bacterial, viral, protozoan, and fungal pathogens that cause skin lesions, as well as other closely related spotted fever group Rickettsia species[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Insect Bite
  • Unfortunately, his research was cut short after his death, likely from an insect bite. S. Burt Wolbach is credited for the first detailed description of the pathogenic agent that causes R. rickettsii in 1919.[en.wikipedia.org]
Convulsions
  • The patient had fever, erythematous rash, abdominal pain, and severe central nervous system involvement with convulsive crisis. The diagnosis of R. rickettsii infection was established by immunohistochemistry and specific polymerase chain reaction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RMSF may result in various neurological manifestations, including deafness, convulsions, and hemiplegia.[doi.org]
Meningism
  • Failure to receive antibiotic therapy, especially during the initial stages of the disease, may lead to end-organ failure (heart, kidney, lungs) meningitis, brain damage, shock, and even death.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epidemic typhus meningitis in the southwestern United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32 : 979 -982. 194. Masters, E. J., G. S. Olson, S. J. Weiner, and C. D. Paddock. 2003 . Rocky mountain spotted fever—a clinician's dilemma. Arch. Intern.[doi.org]

Workup

Leptospira Interrogans
  • Abstract Five serovars of Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira biflexa, Leptonema illini, and Rickettsia rickettsii were examined and found not to contain the 39-kDa antigen (P39) of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Lo M, Bulach DM, Powell DR, Haake DA, Matsunaga J, et al. (2006) Effects of temperature on gene expression patterns in Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai as assessed by whole-genome microarrays. Infect Immun 74: 5848–5859.[journals.plos.org]
Bartonella Henselae
  • We describe a serosurvey for Rickettsia rickettsii, R. typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 437 healthy people from a Brazilian rural community.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Listeria Monocytogenes
  • Actin tail formation and motility in Listeria monocytogenes require the Arp2/3 complex but bypasses N-WASP signaling. Motility of Shigella flexneri and vaccinia virus requires both N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neorickettsia Sennetsu
  • Neorickettsia sennetsu (Misao and Kobayashi 1956) Dumler et al. 2001, comb. nov. Rickettsia sibirica Zdrodovskii 1948, species. Type strain: (see also Global Catalogue of Microorganisms ) 246 ATCC VR-151.[bacterio.net]
Lymphocytic Infiltrate
  • RR was easily visualized within cytoplasm and nuclei of endothelial cells in association with perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates and less frequently with vasculitis or non-inflamed vasculature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • However, under all treatment conditions, a significant number of rickettsiae could be detected microscopically.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The late, sustained phase also was not affected by treatment with BM-1. Downregulation of phorbol ester-sensitive PKCs by long-term treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) did not inhibit NF-kappaB activation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] seropositive for R. rickettsii reported an erythematous or petechial type of rash or a febrile illness, respectively, within 4 weeks of exposure; 5 of 18 (28%) personnel infected with R. rickettsii reported no symptoms and only 8 of 18 (44%) received medical treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Rickettsia inactivation by heat or formaldehyde abolished the activation of p38 kinase and inhibition of cellular invasion by infection at low temperature, pre-treatment of host EC with cytochalasin D, or pre-incubation of rickettsiae with an irreversible[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Understanding the molecular basis for the varied cellular injury caused by different isolates of R. rickettsii may contribute to improved treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and to the rapid identification of those isolates which are more likely[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Identification of specific etiology is important for appropriate treatment in order to optimize prognosis.[n.neurology.org]
  • Predictors of prognosis and risk of acute renal failure in patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. 1996.[qmrawiki.canr.msu.edu]

Etiology

  • Abstract Ehrlichia chaffeensis, etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis, and Rickettsia rickettsii, etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), are both tick-borne agents that cause nonspecific symptoms that may be indistinguishable from each[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study confirms for the first time R. rickettsii as the etiological agent of a lethal spotted fever group rickettsiosis in human patients from Espírito Santo state.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure for detecting rickettsial DNA was developed and shown to be specific for Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii, the etiologic agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) and Boutonneuse fever, respectively[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Identification of specific etiology is important for appropriate treatment in order to optimize prognosis.[n.neurology.org]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract Rickettsial diseases except those belonging to spotted fever group rickettsioses are poorly studied in South America particularly in Brazil where few epidemiological reports have been published.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Tabs Content Clinical Overview Diagnosis Indications for Testing Tick bite exposure and relevant epidemiologic setting Fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting; rash 2-5 days after fever Laboratory Testing Diagnosis and laboratory confirmation recommendations[arupconsult.com]
  • Helmick CG, Bernard KW, D’Angelo LJ (1984) Rocky Mountain spotted fever: clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features of 262 cases.[qmrawiki.canr.msu.edu]
  • Three cases were confirmed by molecular analysis and two by epidemiological linkage. An investigation of BSF was performed in the animal shelter, and blood samples were collected from 115 employees and 117 randomly selected dogs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Generally, Rocky Mountain spotted fever is treated based on clinical and epidemiological, or skin-related, findings about the patient, and antibiotics are administered to wipe out the R. rickettsii within the body.[whatarebacteria.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Abstract Rickettsiae are arthropod-borne intracellular bacterial pathogens that primarily infect the microvascular endothelium leading to systemic spread of the organisms and the major pathophysiological effect, increased microvascular permeability, and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology Rickettsia preferentially infects the vascular endothelial cells lining small and medium vessels throughout the body, causing the systemic symptoms and high mortality seen with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Furthermore, treatment with 500 microM alpha-lipoic acid for 72 h p.i. completely prevented ultrastructural changes in infected cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Preventative Measures The main preventive measures are taken by containing and eliminating the carrier of the pathogen. Wearing long sleeve shirts and pants when in grassy areas provides a barrier from possible tick bites.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Author information 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. ckato@cdc.gov Abstract Two novel real-time PCR assays were developed for the detection of Rickettsia spp.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was tested to detect Rickettsia rickettsii using the same antibody provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that is used for direct immunofluorescence (DIF).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Selective inhibition of p38 activity may be exploited as an anti-inflammatory target to prevent rickettsial vasculitis and to develop new and improved chemotherapeutic agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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