Several congenital heart diseases induce right to left shunting of blood, during which deoxygenated blood from the right heart gains entry straight into the left heart. As a result, a very early onset of cyanosis and severe hypoxemia is typical in a right to left shunt. Clinical criteria, followed by imaging studies, mainly echocardiography, are used to identify the cause of symptoms.
A right to left shunt is a term describing the flow of deoxygenated blood from the right heart (previously from the inferior and superior vena cava) straight into the left heart, which predominantly occurs in the setting of several congenital heart diseases (CHDs)    :
- Tetralogy of Fallot - One of the most important and most common CHDs (constituting 7-10% of all cases) causing a right to left shunt, Tetralogy of Fallot is comprised of a ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary stenosis that obstructs the outflow of the right ventricle, consequent right ventricular hypertrophy and an overriding aorta  .
- Transposition of great vessels - Seen in 1 per 3,000-5,000 live birth, and more commonly in males, the transposition of great vessels is a CHD in which the discordant ventricular outflow occurs due to the aorta arising from the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk arising from the left ventricle .
- Tricuspid atresia - Defined as total or near-total loss of the right atrioventricular connection, this rare CHD is also an important disorder that induces a right to left shunt .
- Persistent truncus arteriosus - A disorder characterized by a single vessel arising from the connected ventricular system of the heart .
All CHDs that induce a right to left shunt present with central cyanosis and the term cyanotic heart disease is sometimes used to describe these disorders  . Signs and symptoms may appear very early, during the neonatal period in most cases, and cyanosis could be mild or severe and life-threatening, depending on the extent of hypoxemia  . If the diagnosis is not made immediately, clubbing of the fingers and toes, polycythemia, paradoxical embolization and respiratory distress can ensue    .
Entire Body System
[…] and/or right-to-left shunting are two of several causes of hypoxemia in the absence of congenital heart disease. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
Right to left cardiac shunt is hence referred as cyanotic congenital heart disease. Causes Of Right To Left Cardiac Shunt Right to left cardiac shunt is congenital heart malformation which is present since birth. [tandurust.com]
In newborns, the oxygen deprivation causes a bluish discoloration of the skin known as cyanosis and this is often referred to a cyanotic congenital heart disease. [healthhype.com]
Much rarer etiological causes include cavopulmonary surgical corrections of cyanotic congenital heart disease; gestational trophoblastic disease; and arteriovenous fistulae induced by trauma. [orpha.net]
- Gaucher Disease
Hepatomegaly is a common manifestation in Gaucher disease. In some patients with the disease, hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension are observed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Heart Disease
We wish to report two cases of congenital cyanotic heart disease in whom coexisting thyrotoxicosis increased the right to left shunt. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] with Cyanotic Heart Diseases. [dovemed.com]
Left To Right Shunt Congenital Heart Disease Human heart is made up of four chambers; the two upper atrium and the two lower ventricles. [tandurust.com]
A patient with Gaucher disease with the hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with severe cyanosis and hypoxemia was examined for intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt using Tc-99m MAA. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
He suffered from exertional dyspnea and cyanosis (oxygen saturation: 85%) for years and he still did not accept any reintervention. [scopemed.org]
As with any right-to-left shunt, there is decreased blood flow to the lungs, resulting in decreased oxygenation of blood and cyanosis. [en.wikipedia.org]
- Systolic Murmur
– Equally common in males and females • Usually diagnosed in early infancy – Because of appearance of cyanosis or a prominent systolic murmur • Natural history is determined mainly by degree of RVOT obstruction 7. [slideshare.net]
Systolic murmur with point of maximal intensity over the second left ICS, sternal border Diagnostics Echocardiography : confirmatory test ; assessment of severity of stenosis Chest x-ray : Adults with isolated pulmonary stenosis show a prominent pulmonary [amboss.com]
Upon auscultation of the heart sounds, there may be an ejection systolic murmur that is attributed to the pulmonic valve. [marmur.com]
- Heart Murmur
Small ventricular septal defects, which did not close spontaneously in childhood, result in a distinctive heart murmur. Larger defects may cause shortness of breath and other problems caused by excessive pulmonary blood flow. [pted.org]
Characteristic heart murmurs are important clues for establishing the diagnosis, which is typically confirmed by visualizing the defect on echocardiography. [amboss.com]
Mortality rates of CHDs causing a right to left shunt are very high in the absence of an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, and unfortunately, the diagnosis is missed in up to 25% of neonates  . For this reason, a meticulous prenatal and postnatal workup is vital in recognizing CHDs of any type, especially those that can be of life-threatening. In neonates, a properly performed physical examination immediately detects cyanosis, after which various diagnostic and imaging tests should be ordered. One of the easiest tests that might be used in the clinical setting is the evaluation of pulse oximetry, a procedure that rapidly evaluates the percentage of oxygen in systemic circulation . When a right to left shunt exists, profound hypoxemia is virtually always present, and pulse oximetry has been used as an effective neonatal screening method for tricuspid atresia, tetralogy of Fallot, and the transposition of the great vessels . Plain radiography of the chest and electrocardiography (ECG) may be useful methods as well, and if clinical suspicion is raised, imaging studies in the form of echocardiography, are the gold standard in visualizing the shunt and confirming the underlying cause    . Standard 2D, 3D, and color Doppler are all used to identify the anatomical anomaly and make the diagnosis. The benefit of ultrasonography is that it enables physicians to make a prenatal diagnosis, and tetralogy of Fallot can be diagnosed as early as 12 weeks  . In addition, it enables adequate therapeutic preparation, thus significantly reducing the risk for complications.
Interventional treatment of a cardiac RLS may offer a small benefit, but has to be weighed against possible complications and the problem of establishing causality. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
treatment, prevention, prognosis, and additional useful information HERE. [dovemed.com]
Abstract Introduction Cardiopulmonary complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD) as shown by worse prognosis in patients who have experienced acute chest syndrome or who have an elevated tricuspid regurgitant [bloodjournal.org]
Prognosis With appropriate management and interventions, prognosis is generally very good with many patients reaching their 9th and 10th decades of life. During pregnancy, however, there is a 1% maternal death rate. [orpha.net]
The prognosis for patients whose VSDs either closed spontaneously or through surgery before the development of pulmonary vascular disease is excellent, with no exercise restrictions and normal life expectancy. [pted.org]
• Neonatal presentation associated with poor prognosis – 20% die in 1 month, and less than 50% survive to 5 years – Cause: HF/Hypoxia Circulation. 2007.115.277-285 36. [slideshare.net]
These results could lead to more comprehensive evaluation for occult malignancy or a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, both potentially treatable etiologies of ischemic stroke. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
and (5) stroke of undetermined etiology. [stroke.ahajournals.org]
Distribution of etiologic groups did not differ from the overall population of 263 patients evaluated for precapillary PH in our department. Table 2 Etiologic groups of pulmonary hypertension [ 1 ]. [bmccardiovascdisord.biomedcentral.com]
The fact that the secondary RLS group had more atrial septal aneurysms and a larger balloon waist diameter would also suggest that incomplete balloon occlusion of large, floppy PFOs is a more likely source of RLS than an intrapulmonary etiology. [interventions.onlinejacc.org]
CONCLUSIONS: In addition to recently defined criteria, genetically determined inheritable traits and epidemiologic characteristics (male gender) should be taken into account when assessing PFO and related cerebrovascular risk profile. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] determined by transcranial Doppler (TCD) with injection of agitated air/saline/autologous blood contrast in 166 migraineurs (mean age: 56 years; 70% women) and 69 controls (mean age: 55 years; 65% women) from the Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine: An Epidemiological [ahcmedia.com]
Complications Heart failure in infancy Infective endocarditis Common cause of pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome in adolescents and adults References:       Coarctation of the aorta Epidemiology Prevalence : 4/10,000 [amboss.com]
Summary Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated at around 1/ 2,600. There is a minor female predominance. [orpha.net]
Epidemiology United States statistics Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is detected in 10-15% of the population by contrast transthoracic echocardiography. [emedicine.medscape.com]
This case report illustrates how a step-by-step diagnostic procedure, based on pathophysiology, may lead to such unexpected findings. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Preoperative nebulized salbutamol and ipratroprium were given to prevent bronchospasm and adrenaline and noradrenaline were infused to maintain cardiac output and the balance between systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
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