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Roseola Infantum

Baby Measles


Presentation

  • At risk population Exanthema subitum typically occurs in children between six months and two years of age who present with high fever.[medicaljoyworks.com]
  • Pädiatrie und Grenzgebiete Jan 1, 1989 Abstract As to the present knowledge the critical rose rash of infants (exanthema subitum, roseola infantum) means to be an exanthematous infectious disease that, occurring preferably in elder babes and younger infants[meta.org]
  • Caused by the B variant of HHV-6, patients with the virus classically present with an acute onset of a high-grade fever up to 40 C (104 F) for three to five days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diagnosis Diagnosis is made by clinical presentation. Incubation period (time between becoming infected and developing symptoms) About 10 days.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • 1 Roseola infantum and its causal human herpesviruses. ( 24673253 ) 2014 2 Differentiating roseola infantum with pyuria from urinary tract infection. ( 23190314 ) Huang CT...Lin LH 2013 3 Detection of human herpesvirus 7 infection in young children presenting[malacards.org]
Fever
  • Irritability Patient looks very tired, irritable and ill due to the high fever. Irritability Patient looks very tired, irritable and ill due to the high fever. Fits Very rarely the rapid rise of fever predisposes the patient to febrile fits.[medicaljoyworks.com]
  • Fever may be treated with paracetamol. Aspirin should not be given to children under 12 years of age unless specifically recommended by a doctor.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • It begins with a high fever that may exceed 40 C (104 F). The fever typically lasts three to five days. During the fever, children may appear to be active and well.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Primary infection with HHV-6 can either be asymptomatic, cause roseola with high fever and rash, or be associated with an undifferentiated short febrile illness without rash.[genome.jp]
  • Roseola is an infectious disease caused by certain types of virus. [2] Most infections occur before the age of three. [1] Symptoms vary from absent to the classic presentation of a fever of rapid onset followed by a rash. [1] [2] The fever generally lasts[en.wikipedia.org]
High Fever
  • Irritability Patient looks very tired, irritable and ill due to the high fever. Irritability Patient looks very tired, irritable and ill due to the high fever. Fits Very rarely the rapid rise of fever predisposes the patient to febrile fits.[medicaljoyworks.com]
  • Signs and symptoms Symptoms include the sudden onset of a high fever that lasts 3 to 5 days and then falls, at which time a rash appears. The rash looks similar to the measles rash, but appears first on the body rather than the face.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • Up to 15% of children will experience seizures during their illness due to the high fevers and ability of the virus to enter the blood-brain barrier.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Primary infection with HHV-6 can either be asymptomatic, cause roseola with high fever and rash, or be associated with an undifferentiated short febrile illness without rash.[genome.jp]
  • fever (39–40 C; 102.2-104 F).[en.wikipedia.org]
Falling
  • Signs and symptoms Symptoms include the sudden onset of a high fever that lasts 3 to 5 days and then falls, at which time a rash appears. The rash looks similar to the measles rash, but appears first on the body rather than the face.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • The peak incidence of the virus is in the spring and fall seasons. Transmission occurs primarily through saliva via respiratory droplets [3].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lymphadenopathy
  • […] polypeptides. ( 2553827 ) Yoshida T...Yamamoto N 1989 31 Roseola infantum--the neglected exanthem. ( 3217362 ) Stammers TG 1988 32 Thrombocytopenic purpura associated with exanthema subitum. ( 887348 ) Nishimura K...Igarashi M 1977 33 Postoccipital lymphadenopathy[malacards.org]
  • However, children may also have malaise, conjunctivitis, orbital edema, inflammation of the tympanic membranes, lymphadenopathy, irritability, anorexia, a bulging fontanelle, diarrhea, cough and other upper respiratory tract symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic
  • Primary infection with HHV-7 is milder and most often asymptomatic, although some cases of roseola-like illness have been linked to it.[genome.jp]
Cough
  • Nasal congestion Upper respiratory symptoms such as sore throat, cough, runny nose or congestion are not uncommon. Nasal congestion Upper respiratory symptoms such as sore throat, cough, runny nose or congestion are not uncommon.[medicaljoyworks.com]
  • However, children may also have malaise, conjunctivitis, orbital edema, inflammation of the tympanic membranes, lymphadenopathy, irritability, anorexia, a bulging fontanelle, diarrhea, cough and other upper respiratory tract symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The rash is not itchy and may last 1 to 2 days. [3] In contrast, a child suffering from measles would usually appear sicker, with symptoms of conjunctivitis, cold-like symptoms, and a cough, and their rash would affect the face and last for several days[en.wikipedia.org]
Diarrhea
  • However, children may also have malaise, conjunctivitis, orbital edema, inflammation of the tympanic membranes, lymphadenopathy, irritability, anorexia, a bulging fontanelle, diarrhea, cough and other upper respiratory tract symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Heart Disease
  • […] hay fever Bites, burns, cuts and pests Blood, organ and tissue Cancer Challenging behaviour Chemicals and contaminants Diabetes Dementia Dental care Drugs End of life care Essure contraceptive device Falls and preventing harm from falls Food safety Heart[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
Exanthema
  • […] with rapid progression and resolution following exanthema subitum. ( 15807699 ) Tamiya H...Ishii M 2005 6 Frequent seizures with elevated interleukin-6 at the eruptive stage of exanthema subitum. ( 12615174 ) Avcin T...Neubauer D 2003 7 Frequent seizures[malacards.org]
  • At risk population Exanthema subitum typically occurs in children between six months and two years of age who present with high fever.[medicaljoyworks.com]
  • Entry H00369 Disease Name Exanthema subitum; Roseolovirus infection; Roseola; Pityriasis rosea Description Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) are members of beta-herpesvirus that are prevalent in the human population.[genome.jp]
  • Pädiatrie und Grenzgebiete Jan 1, 1989 Abstract As to the present knowledge the critical rose rash of infants (exanthema subitum, roseola infantum) means to be an exanthematous infectious disease that, occurring preferably in elder babes and younger infants[meta.org]
  • This disease, also known as exanthema subitum and sixth disease, presents in children ages six to 12 months with 90% of cases occurring in children younger than two years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Febrile Convulsions
  • Convulsions References Citations References currently unavailable We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.[meta.org]
  • convulsions. ( 13354383 ) MOLLER KL 1956 47 Roseola infantum; an isolated outbreak. ( 13320898 ) REIS ND 1956 48 Electron microscopic studies of the Roseola infantum (exanthem subitum) virus. ( 13281795 ) REAGAN RL...BRUECKNER AL 1955 49 An observation[malacards.org]
  • In rare cases, this can cause febrile convulsions (also known as febrile seizures or "fever fits") due to the sudden rise in body temperature, but in many cases the child appears normal.[en.wikipedia.org]
Asthenia
  • […] disease that, occurring preferably in elder babes and younger infants (1st--3rd year of life), is caused by the newly detected herpesvirus (now the... read more Mentioned in this Paper Etiology Herpesviridae Simplexvirus Herpesvirus 6A, Human Excitability Asthenia[meta.org]
Neglect
  • Cunningham AL 1990 29 Exanthem subitum (roseola infantum). ( 2647267 ) Meade RH 1989 30 Immune response of patients with exanthema subitum to human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) polypeptides. ( 2553827 ) Yoshida T...Yamamoto N 1989 31 Roseola infantum--the neglected[malacards.org]

Workup

Human Herpesvirus 6
  • ( 1649431 ) Kusuhara K...Yamanishi K 1991 23 Roseola infantum caused by human herpesvirus-6: report of 7 cases with emphasis on complications. ( 1681005 ) Huang LM...Kuo T 1991 24 Role of human herpesvirus 6 infection in infants with exanthema subitum[malacards.org]
  • Roseola infantum is most commonly caused by human herpesvirus 6 and less commonly, human herpesvirus 7. Human herpesvirus 6 has two variants: A and B. The primary variant that causes roseola infantum is HHV-6B.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "A Population-Based Study of Primary Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection". New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (8): 768–776. doi : 10.1056/NEJMoa042207. PMID 15728809. Stoeckle MY (2000).[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment No specific antiviral therapy is required. Fever may be treated with paracetamol. Aspirin should not be given to children under 12 years of age unless specifically recommended by a doctor.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • Without any treatment, they may fade within a few hours or persist for as long as 2-3 days. Rash As the fever subsides, a rash appears. This usually begins on the trunk, spreading to the legs and neck.[medicaljoyworks.com]
  • Treatment / Management There is no specific treatment for roseola infantum. The majority of cases of roseola infantum are mild and self-limited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, febrile seizures are not harmful, do not require treatment, and have no long term negative effects unless they last longer than five minutes.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prognosis

  • Differential Diagnosis Measles Rubella Scarlet fever Viral exanthem Exanthematous drug eruption Prognosis The prognosis of roseola infantum is excellent. It is a self-limited disease with few long term adverse events.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • […] subitum, roseola infantum) means to be an exanthematous infectious disease that, occurring preferably in elder babes and younger infants (1st--3rd year of life), is caused by the newly detected herpesvirus (now the... read more Mentioned in this Paper Etiology[meta.org]
  • Etiology Human herpesvirus 6, a virus found in the Herpesviridae family, causes roseola infantum. HHV-6 is a betaherpesvirus, closely related to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) [1].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Human herpesvirus 6 has been found to be the cause of febrile illness in 10% to 45% of infants in the United States.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Human herpesvirus 6 replicates most commonly in the leukocytes and the salivary glands during the primary infection and will, therefore, be present in saliva.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Prevention Exclusion from childcare, preschool, school or work is not necessary follow good hand washing procedures dispose of soiled tissues appropriately there is no vaccine available to prevent this infection.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • Adequate hand washing is very important to prevent the spread of the disease. Differential Diagnosis Measles Rubella Scarlet fever Viral exanthem Exanthematous drug eruption Prognosis The prognosis of roseola infantum is excellent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention [ edit ] There is no specific vaccine against or treatment for exanthema subitum, and most children with the disease are not seriously ill.[en.wikipedia.org]

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