Salmonella food poisoning follows consumption of food contaminated with the Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella enteritidis and other bacteria belonging to the Salmonella family. It is the most common cause of foodborne sporadic outbreaks and accounts for a majority of all non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.
Salmonella food poisoning (SFP) is a non-typhoidal infection typically caused by Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella enteritidis and other serotypes of the gram-negative bacteria, Salmonella . The condition follows consumption of contaminated eggs, beef, poultry, milk, fish, vegetables, fruits and processed foods   or consumption of food prepared by infected kitchen staff or due to unhygienic contamination from infected animal or human feces . It is the most important cause of mortality amongst foodborne bacterial illnesses.
The symptoms typically appear within 6 hours to 4 days of consumption of contaminated food and are characterized by sudden onset of nausea, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, headaches, fever, and abdominal cramps. The symptoms can last for up to 7 days and are usually self-limiting but some patients may develop severe diarrhea and consequent dehydration requiring hospitalization. Infants, young children less than 2 years of age and the elderly are especially susceptible to severe dehydration. Severe, life- threatening extra-intestinal involvement like bacteremia, meningitis, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis may occur in a small number of cases  .
The workup of a patient with SFP begins with a thorough history regarding the onset, duration, and progress of symptoms with information about sources of prior food consumption. Physical examination can be non-specific but may reveal features of dehydration like tachycardia, dry mucous membranes, tenting of skin, and hypotension especially in patients with severe diarrhea. A complete blood count, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels help to identify the level of dehydration. In severe dehydration, there may be hyponatremic hypochloremic metabolic acidosis with an anion gap and elevated serum BUN and creatinine levels indicative of acute renal dysfunction. The diagnosis can be confirmed by isolating the organism from stools. Staining of stools with methylene blue can show white blood cells (WBCs) which are present in inflammatory bowel disease but not in invasive disease. Stools should also be tested for ova and parasites. Bacterial stool culture with antibiotic sensitivity testing is performed in all cases which have WBCs in the stools. If cultures are negative, then blood cultures are ordered and the result may be positive in cases of bacteremia.
Local public health officials are notified when an outbreak is suspected and they will collect feces, food, or vomitus for testing at their laboratories . Fecal cultures are done on specific culture media to ensure detection of enteropathogens. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) provides current standards for susceptibility testing conditions and criteria for interpretation of results of E. coli, E. tarda, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia spp. .