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Salt Depletion


Presentation

  • Three preterm infants presented with both severe or moderate arterial hypertension and dehydration due to increased water and sodium urinary excretion.[link.springer.com]
  • Using the Stinebaugh and Austin reference diagram for acid-base classification, a mixed respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis was present in 71% of patients with CF and in only 22% of those with COPD (p Metabolic alkalosis is associated with sodium[thorax.bmj.com]
  • Presents global perspectives from the world's leaders in this specialty to put the latest expert knowledge to work for you and your patients.[books.google.com]
  • However, the terminologies related to Bartter’s syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome do not always accurately reflect their pathophysiological basis or clinical presentation. Some cases are difficult to diagnose due to clinical presentations.[nmckk.jp]
Renal Artery Stenosis
  • The patients with renal artery stenosis did not differ in their reactions from those with essential hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cat Scratch
  • Features up-to-date information on HIV/AIDS, with an emphasis on Africa; malaria; tropical gastroenterological problems; dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever; tuberculosis; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; SARS; avian flu; bartonellosis, cat-scratch disease[books.google.com]
Hypoventilation
  • Resulting respiratory compensation for this metabolic alkalosis results in hypoventilation and increased hypercapnia.[thorax.bmj.com]
Salt Craving
  • Salt cravings can be an important clue or sign that your thyroid and adrenal glands may be in need of minerals.[bodyecology.com]
  • Reach for these good-for-you foods to satisfy salt cravings and get an added nutritional punch. While you're at it, switch to sea salt, says nutritionist Bob Seebohar. It has more micronutrients, including zinc and iron, than regular table salt.[runnersworld.com]
Regurgitation
  • Disgorgement - Emesis - Puking - Regurgitation - Vomit - Vomiting : الٹی : the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the abdomen through the mouth. "I feel vomiting but it doesn t come out"[urdu.wordinn.com]
Food Poisoning
  • "He felt as if his whole body were on fire" Diarrhea - Diarrhoea - Looseness - Looseness Of The Bowels : اسہال : frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor.[urdu.wordinn.com]
Hypotension
  • When ECF volume has diminished by 5 to 10% (moderate volume depletion), orthostatic tachycardia, hypotension, or both are usually, but not always, present.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Because renal compromise may occur in patients with hypotension, physicians should consider using mannitol and diuretics to maintain urine output at 50 to 100 mL per hour. 12 Resistant hyperkalemia may require the use of potassium-lowering resins.[aafp.org]
  • Diagnostic Findings - Rectal or core temperatures greater than 104 degrees; hypotension; mental changes, severe headache, bizarre behavior, ataxia, seizures, and coma; tachycardia; tachypnea; and profuse or absent (usually) sweating can all be seen.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Clinical features include diminished skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, and orthostatic hypotension. Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment involves administration of sodium and water.[merckmanuals.com]
Purpura
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Case 3-2019: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Headache, and Progressive Encephalopathy Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Randomized[nejm.org]
Difficulty Concentrating
  • الصفحة 270 - Only one item is required in children. (1) restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge (2) being easily fatigued (3) difficulty concentrating or mind going blank (4) irritability (5) muscle tension (6) sleep disturbance (difficulty falling[books.google.com]

Workup

Hyponatremia
  • Hyponatremia (low blood sodium) definition and facts Hyponatremia refers to a low level of sodium in the blood.[medicinenet.com]
  • Chronic hyponatremia is often called asymptomatic hyponatremia in clinical settings because it is thought to have no symptoms; however, emerging data suggests that "asymptomatic" hyponatremia is not actually asymptomatic. [11] Acute hyponatremia is when[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Other Causes of Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is an electrolyte disorder caused by an imbalance of water and salt levels in the body.[healthyeating.sfgate.com]
  • Hyponatremia—What is it? Many athletes will take salt supplements to prevent hyponatremia, which is a low concentration of sodium in the blood.[eletewater.co.uk]
  • Avoiding hyponatremia The major salt-related risk to the health of runners is hyponatremia, a potentially fatal condition that has received a lot of attention lately.[active.com]
Hypercapnia
  • Resulting respiratory compensation for this metabolic alkalosis results in hypoventilation and increased hypercapnia.[thorax.bmj.com]
Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • Abstract Long-term therapy with antihypertensive agents that reduce sympathetic nervous system activity has been demonstrated by echocardiographic measurements to reverse left ventricular hypertrophy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The 1988 Intersalt Study, designed to resolve contradictions in ecological and epidemiological studies, failed to demonstrate any linear relationship between salt intake and blood pressure.[chriskresser.com]
  • […] available in many areas of the world. [16] Precautions [ edit ] Raising the serum sodium concentration too rapidly may cause osmotic demyelination syndrome. [35] [36] [37] It is recommended not to raise the serum sodium by more than 10 mEq/L/day. [38] Epidemiology[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • However, the terminologies related to Bartter’s syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome do not always accurately reflect their pathophysiological basis or clinical presentation. Some cases are difficult to diagnose due to clinical presentations.[nmckk.jp]
  • Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney Physiology & Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Burlington: Elsevier Science. ISBN 9780123814630. Kwon, TH; Hager, H; Nejsum, LN; Andersen, ML; Frøkiaer, J; Nielsen, S (May 2001).[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • These studies have shown that: ARF is associated with negative Na balance and is corrected by salt replacement, even without interrupting C; ARF is preceded by a rise in urinary prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 6-keto-F1 alpha; ARF is prevented by either saline[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • You can lower your risk of heat illness by drinking fluids to prevent dehydration, replacing lost salt and minerals, and limiting your time in the heat.[icdlist.com]
  • Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). ‏[books.google.com]
  • Heat-related illnesses are preventable. Prevention begins with understanding the causes of heat illness, and making sure to stay cool and hydrated during hot weather.[orthoinfo.aaos.org]
  • Preventing heatstroke is the first step in treating heatstroke ( Table 4 ). 1, 6, 8, 12, 13, 21 Although it sounds deceptively simple, the best prevention is to avoid hot environments.[aafp.org]

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