Clinical manifestations are pruritus that worsens during the night and a papular rash. The pruritus is a result of a delayed type-IV hypersensitivity reaction to the mite, the mite’s feces or their eggs . Therefore symptoms may not appear until 4 to 6 weeks after infection.
During the incubation period, symptoms of scabies typically begin to present 3-6 weeks after the primary infection. In patients who have previously been infected by scabies, symptoms may appear earlier due to sensitization of the patient’s immune system.
During infestation period the lesion(s) are small, erythematous, nondescript papules, often excoriated and tipped with hemorrhagic crusts. The burrow is a thin, grayish, reddish or brownish line that is 2-15 mm long. Miniature wheals, vesicles, pustules, and rarely bullae may also be present.
The typical distribution of scabies is:
- sides and within webs of fingers
- flexor aspects of the wrists
- extensor aspects of the elbows
- anterior and posterior axillary folds
- skin adjacent to nipples in women
- periumbilical area
- male genitalia
- extensor surface of knees
- adjacent thighs
- lateral and posterior aspects of feet
Usually the back and head are not involved. Young children and infants often have involvement of the palms and soles and all aspects of the fingers. Lesions in children are usually more inflammatory than in adults and often vesicular or bullous.
Norwegian Crusted Scabies (scabies crustosa)
This subtype of scabies commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients. These result in thick crusts of skin that contain large numbers of scabies, mites and eggs. The mites in the crusts are not any more virulent as the ones in non-crusted scabies. However they are significantly more numerous (up to 2 million per patient). The fissures associated with crusted scabies provide a portal of entry for bacteria.
In an immunocompromised person, this may lead to impetigo, severe infection and even sepsis. Crusted scabies begin with poorly defined erythematous patches that quickly develop prominent scales. Scalp, hands and feet are commonly affected. Lesions are malodorous. Nails may become distorted and discolored, itching may be minimal or absent.
Treatment with oral ivermectin and topical permethrin has been successful. In very severe cases, surgical debridement in combination with the ivermectin and permethrin, has been shown to be an effective treatment.
Entire Body System
A 19-year-old male was admitted to the medical ward with complaints of fever and swelling of the ankle and wrist joints of about two weeks duration. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Steroid cream: To ease the redness, swelling, and itch. Outcome Treatment can get rid of the mites, eliminate symptoms such as itch, and treat an infection that has developed. [aad.org]
And if there is a e white swelling in the skin that has turned the hair white, and there is raw flesh in the swelling, 11 it is a chronic leprous disease in the skin of his body, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean. f He shall not shut him up, [esv.org]
The most common causes of a skin rash that looks like scabies include: Allergies to medications or food, which can cause the development of a sudden rash, typically characterized by redness with small bumps or swelling, and less commonly associated with [verywellhealth.com]
It may be four to six weeks before a newly infected person will notice the itching or swelling that can indicate the presence of scabies. A re-infection will itch right away. [aocd.org]
- Military Personnel
Of 200 dermatology outpatients in Sirte, Libya, with scabies, the following distribution was found  : Females - 59% Children - 37.5% Military personnel - 18% While many accounts of the epidemiology of scabies suggest that epidemics or pandemics occur [emedicine.medscape.com]
Crusted scabies is a hyperkeratotic skin disease resembling psoriasis. [ 13 ] It may present with generalised lymphadenopathy and be associated with eosinophilia. It often becomes secondarily infected. [patient.info]
Lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia can be present, but itching may be unexpectedly mild. Patients with crusted scabies may harbour millions of mites and are highly infectious ( Meinking 1995a ). [doi.org]
Read More on eMedicine » Featured Topics Causes of Fatigue Slideshow Living with COPD Quiz: Sleep and Crazy Hours on the Job Sleep Disorders Slideshow Topics Related to Scabies Acne Allergic Reaction Lice Sexually Transmitted Diseases Skin Rashes in Children [web.archive.org]
W W W … 01:55 … Monsters Inside Me W … Pork Tapeworm in Brain i … A fitness fanatic cannot understand why he is too fatigued to work out until he learns an infection in his colon has created a tear, causing e-coli to spread through his body. [animalplanet.com]
[…] chronic kidney disease (ICD-9-CM 585,586,588), liver cirrhosis (ICD-9-CM: 571), hyperlipidemia (ICD-9-CM 272.4), heart disease (ICD-9-CM 393–398, 402, 404.0, 404.1, 404.9, 410–414, 415.0, 416.1, 416.8, 416.9, 420–429), anemia (ICD-9-CM 280–285), and epilepsy [parasite-journal.org]
Severe pruritus is a typical symptom in affected individuals, and it is generally worst at night and when the patient is warm. Inflamed papules appear, and a pruriginous papulovesicular eczematous rash may develop. [dermis.net]
Patients commonly report intense pruritus. However, affected patients with neurologic disease, immunocompromised status, infants, or elderly individuals may not report pruritus. [dermquest.com]
Persons with crusted scabies may not show the usual signs and symptoms of scabies such as the characteristic rash or itching (pruritus). [web.archive.org]
Scabies is a common ectoparasitic disease that can be diagnosed based on the presence of pruritus and typical clinical signs including burrows, vesicles, and erythematous papules. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
He was repeatedly diagnosed with eczema, but treatment failed to achieve efficacy. Interestingly, a microscopic examination of the lesions revealed numerous scabies mites and eggs. Thus, we confirmed the diagnosis of Norwegian scabies infection. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Over time papules can change into vesicles and bullae. [ 12 ] Papules and vesicles frequently develop into excoriations, eczema exacerbations, secondary infections and crusts. [patient.info]
Mucosal drug eruption was suspected, and eruptions around the mouth and on the tongue resolved within 1 week after ivermectin being discontinued. 1% gamma-benzene hexachloride ointment was applied topically on the body from the neck down once a week, [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Despite effective treatment with topical lindane, failure to control scabies in her institution led to recurrences of her peculiar blistering infestation. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
A scabies infection often appears as little red bumps or blisters on the skin. Credit: Joe Miller/CDC Symptoms Though scabies has very few symptoms, it can be very uncomfortable. [livescience.com]
The mites burrow into the top layer of human skin to lay their eggs, causing small itchy bumps and blisters. A child with scabies may have a bumpy red rash. [kidshealth.org]
The rash also can include tiny blisters (vesicles) and scales. Scratching the rash can cause skin sores; sometimes these sores become infected by bacteria. [cdc.gov]
A Pimple like red rash with scales or blisters may develop. The relentless scratching can lead to sores and secondary infection. The hallmark of a scabies rash is a burrow-like track left behind by the mites. [fleabites.net]
[…] scabies is a common infestation that usually presents as a pruriginous eruption consisting of erythematous papules, nodules, and excoriations. Diagnosis relies mostly on clinical features, including the identification of scabietic burrows. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Although both share certain characteristics, it is important not to confuse the two types of mange, because they have different causes and treatments, and one can be passed to humans. [web.archive.org]
There are numerous other skin conditions that may be confused with scabies. The main way to distinguish them is through the mite burrows, which are not associated with any of the skin conditions that may be confused with scabies. [wikihow.com]
Other conditions are sometimes confused with scabies. The scabies mite has no relation to body lice, although the symptoms may be similar. [emedicinehealth.com]
Deuteronomy 28:28 The LORD will afflict you with madness, blindness, and confusion of mind, Deuteronomy 28:35 The LORD will afflict you with painful, incurable boils on your knees and thighs, from the soles of your feet to the top of your head. [biblehub.com]
Among the adverse event reports in the FDA database, 70% reported neurologic events including seizure, dizziness, headache and paresthesia. [web.archive.org]
Lindane is not recommended in children < 2 years of age or in patients with a seizure disorder because of potential neurotoxicity. [merckmanuals.com]
Lindane should not be used to treat premature infants, persons with a seizure disorder, women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, persons who have very irritated skin or sores where the lindane will be applied, infants, children, the elderly, and persons [cdc.gov]
Convulsions and aplastic anaemia have both been reported with the use of lindane ( Rauch 1990 ; Elgart 1996 ); in some cases this being thought to be due to the application of the drug to non‐intact skin. [doi.org]
- Pruritus Vulvae
Micheline Moyal-Barracco, Pruritus Vulvae, Pruritus, 10.1007/978-3-319-33142-3_43, (329-342), (2016). Shu-Ling Chen, Kuei-Ling Chen, Li-Hung Lee and Cheng-I. [doi.org]
- Genital Lesions
It can take a month after treatment for the general itching to subside completely, and longer for the lumpy genital lesions to resolve. Your GP may recommend repeating the treatment or they may prescribe a different lotion. [nhsinform.scot]
The diagnosis of scabies is usually determined from the patient’s history and the distribution of the lesions. Affirmative answers that my indicate scabies include: Wide spread itching that is worse at night everywhere on the body but the head? Any pruritic eruptions with characteristic lesions and distributions? Are there any other household members with similar symptoms?
Skin scraping – Skin scraping may allow direct observation of the mites, eggs or the mite’s feces pellets. This involves placing a drop of mineral oil over the skin lesion and scraping the area with a number 15 blade or pinching the area between the thumb and index finger and while shaving the top layer of the skin. The specimen is then placed on a slide and visualized under a microscope at 10x power for mite eggs or mites . Draw backs to this method are that special stains and equipment are required and children may not tolerate this well.
Dermoscopy – Dermoscopy may also allow direct observation of the mites or burrowing. This test involves an examination of the skin surface with a handheld dermatocsope which allows visualization of the dermal epidermis. The characteristic finding on dermoscopic examination is a dark, triangular shape that represents the mite’s head within a burrow, called the “delta wing” sign. The primary draw back to this method is the need to have specialized equipment and evaluation is more difficult in dark skinned patients.
Adhesive tape test – Transparent tape is firmly applied directly onto a lesion and then quickly removed. The tape is then applied to a glass and examined for mites and eggs. This test is most often used in c clinics because no special equipment is needed and children tend to tolerate this test better than skin scrapings.
- Sarcoptes Scabiei
UMLS Cutaneous acariasis, Infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei, Itch, sarcoptic, Sarcoptic itch, Scabies [dermis.net]
Image: Sarcoptes scabiei mites in a skin scraping, stained with lactophenol cotton-blue. Credit: DPDx [cdc.gov]
Sarcoptic itch, Infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis (disorder), Infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis, Sarcoptes scabiei; acariasis, Sarcoptes scabiei; infestation, infestation; Sarcoptes scabiei, infestation; mites, scabic, infestation [fpnotebook.com]
Convert to ICD-10-CM : 133.0 converts directly to: 2015/16 ICD-10-CM B86 Scabies Approximate Synonyms infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis Applies To Infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei Norwegian scabies Sarcoptic itch ICD-9-CM Volume 2 Index entries [icd9data.com]
- Staphylococcus Aureus
The sores sometimes become infected with bacteria on the skin, such as Staphylococcus aureus or beta-hemolytic streptococci. Sometimes the bacterial skin infection can lead an inflammation of the kidneys called post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. [web.archive.org]
Bacterial superinfection with Staphylococcus aureus infection is very common. The presence or development of pustules, folliculitis, or cellulitis should be evaluated with high suspicion of bacterial superinfection. [dermquest.com]
Complete eradication of mites is essential for treatment. The patient as well as his/her close contacts must be treated simultaneously.
Both oral (e.g. ivermectin, thiabendazole, flubendazole) and topical creams (e.g. lindane, permethrin, sulfur containing products, crotamiton, malathion, benzyl benzoate are used to treat scabies mites .
There is no international consensus on the treatment of scabies. However, 5% permethrin with oral ivermectin are usually the first line choices for treatment. Clinical trials evaluating the toxicity of various therapies have indicated that topical permethrin 5% cream and oral ivermectin are reasonable first-line therapies, with minimal side effects.
In another clinical trial evaluating the efficacy between 5% permethrin cream or 1% lindane lotion found similar cure rates achieved in 4 weeks after a single whole body application of each. However, permethrin has less neurotoxicity than lindane, particularly in children, and therefore is preferred .
Oral ivermectin is an anthelmintic with a half-life of 36 hours. The advantage to an oral medication compared to a topical medication is its ease of use; lack of treatment associated dermatitis and increased compliance. Ivermectin is first line therapy in nursing home or other institutional facilities where topical therapy may not be practical .
Randomized clinical trials have shown that a single dose of ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is as or more effective than application of 1% lindane, but LESS effective than a single application of permethrin. Two doses of ivermectin achieved equivalent cure rates to a single application of permethrin .
The CDC recommends using ivermectin (200 mcg/kg by mouth as a single dose with a repeat dose 2 weeks later) as an equivalent option to topical permethrin .
Itching can be controlled with antihistamines. Itching may persist up to 2 weeks after treatment because of hypersensitivity reaction to mites, mites feces and eggs. High potency topical corticosteroids can also be used to control itching after eradication of mites.
The entire household and close contacts must also be treated in addition to the patient at the same time to prevent re-infection or cross contamination. Fomite transfer of scabies may also occur although it is not as much of a concern as person to person transmission.
There is a possibility that contaminated clothing can result in spread or reinfection with scabies. Such items should be placed in a plastic bag for 3 days (scabies mites cannot survive for more than 2-3 days away from human skin). Then machine washed with hot water and placed in a hot dryer or dry cleaned .
Scabies is curable with scabicide medications.
Scabies is caused by the host-specific mite Sarcopetes scabiei hominis, which is an obligate human parasite and a member of the family Sarcoptidae.
Almost 300 million people may be infected worldwide. The scabiei mite depends on humans for survival and infection occurs from human to human contact.
It is equally seen in men and women and in persons of all races. It is most prevalent in crowded conditions such as nursing homes, child care facilities, extended-care facilities and prisons.
Scabies is more prevalent during the winter than in the summer. This may be attributed to greater physical crowding in the winder and also because the mites can survive longer on fomites in colder temperatures .
Mites can survive off a host for 24 or 36 hours depending on environmental conditions . The mites mate on the surface of the skin and then the female burrows into the skin to lay the eggs. The eggs hatch a few days later and nymphs appear.
Burrowing is facilitated by secretion of enzymes which cause skin damage detectable at the microscopic level. The female mite burrows into the epidermis to the level of the granulosum and burrows down further about 2 mm a day, lays 10-25 eggs a day and then dies.
The larvae hatch in three to four days, leave the burrow for the surface of the skin, copulate and continue the cycle.
There are no guidelines for prevention of Scabies.
What are scabies?
Scabies is an infection caused by tiny mites that makes your skin very itchy. This happens when tiny insects called mites burrow under your skin to lay eggs each day for several weeks.
How do you get scabies?
Scabies is spread from people to people that are in close contact (skin to skin contact) and through shared bedding, clothing, towels of the infested person.
What are the symptoms of scabies?
The common symptom is severe itching that is worse at night and small red bumps that may be hard to see. The itching is caused by allergic reaction to the mites. Therefore, the itching may start a few weeks after a person is infected. The body parts impacted the most by scabies are:
- Between the fingers, in the web between fingers
- Skin folds around wrists, elbows, knees, armpits
- Around the waist
- Around the penis and scrotum in men
- Around the nipples in women
- Around the lower buttocks and upper thighs
- On the sides and bottom of feet
Treatment and Control
If you have these symptoms, you should see your doctor. He/she will give you a medicine to cure the scabies mites. If you keep scratching, you may get infections. You can use anti-histamines (allergy pills) to stop the itching while you are undergoing treatment. Itching may last 2 weeks after you finish your treatment.
Once your doctor starts you on the medication, he/she will also ask the people in close contact with you to start the treatment as well. This is because they may be carrying scabies, even without any symptoms. The goal is to prevent re-infection.
Wash all clothes that you and others wore in the last week in hot water and dry on high heat in the dryer. Also wash bedding, towels, stuffed animals, etc. Dry cleaning will also get rid of the mites. If you are not able to wash or dry clean these items, place them in a plastic bag for 3 days. The scabies mites cannot live away from the body for more than 2-3 days.
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- Schultz MW, Gomez M, Hansen RC, et al. Comparative study of 5% permethrin cream and 1% lindane otion for the treatment of scabies. Arch Dermatol 1990; 126:167.
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- Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers of Disease control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseasesss treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010; 59:1.
- Fitzgerald D, Grainger RJ, Reid A. Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contracts of people with scabies. On line publication – Cochrane library collection.