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Schistosoma Haematobium


Presentation

  • Microhematuria was present in 33% of PSAC and 42% of SAC and leukocyturia in 53% and 40% of PSAC and SAC, respectively. 50% (64/128) of PSAC and 58% (71/122) of SAC presented urinary tract morbidity, which was mainly mild.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present two rare cases of bladder outlet obstruction: one which led to a chronic kidney disease and ultimately death and a second which recovered after treatment with praziquantel.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The utility of microhaematuria (as measured by urine reagent strips) as a surrogate marker for Schistosoma haematobium infection is not established in patients with urogenital symptoms presenting to clinical settings, although previous studies[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moore Present address: Tropical Development and Research Institute, College House, Wrights Lane, London W8 5SJ.[doi.org]
  • The patient presented initially with spontaneous pneumothorax.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Falling
  • As prevalence falls, diagnostics can identify high transmission areas, monitor disease trends, and guide evidence-based control strategies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • MyBioSource and its authorized distributors reserve the right to refuse to process any order where we reasonably believe that the intended use will fall outside of our acceptable guidelines.[mybiosource.com]
Pseudotumor
  • Abstract A giant fibrous pseudotumor of the right testicular tunics in a 27-year-old Zambian is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A biopsy specimen of this pseudotumoral specimen showed many Schistosoma haematobium eggs with an inflammatory reaction surrounding the eggs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Recurrent Infection
  • However, because pre-school infection [ 4 – 6 ] and recurrent infection during childhood [ 7, 8 ] are associated with significant risk for disease, optimal disease prevention can occur only when parasite infection or reinfection can be effectively blocked[doi.org]
Pathologist
  • Since it is probable that with the increase in the number of immigrants to Europe from endemic countries (sub-Saharan Africa in particular) other similar cases may occur, it is important that the surgeon and the pathologist be aware of this pathology,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Few eggs are passed in the urine, and when definitive diagnosis is necessary pathologists may resort to tissue biopsy where the parasite eggs can be seen. 2 Inadequate diagnosis is potentially a serious problem, particularly in cases of chronic infection[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • After suprapubic aspiration, the cause of the obstructive uropathy was found to be several mature live worms of Schistosoma haematobium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Microscopic Hematuria
  • The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for diagnosing S. haematobium compared with microscopy was: 74% and 72% for the shake test; 61% and 97% for microscopic hematuria; and 43% and 83% for proteinuria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms associated with genital schistosomiasis are dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, lower abdominal pain, and intermenstrual bleeding. 8 This patient presented with signs and symptoms of microscopic hematuria and pain in the left lumbar and abdominal[academic.oup.com]
Renal Injury
  • The proportion of children with renal injury associated with the co-infection of these parasites is very high, particularly in young children, who seem to have a higher prevalence of hematuria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Incontinence
  • A case of seronegative urinary Schistosomiasis is reported in a 68-year-old Caucasian male presenting with urgency of micturition and incontinence several months after bathing in a chlorinated pool of a first class hotel in Egypt.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Urethral Discharge
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of gram-negative intracellular diplococci in the urethral discharge and of characteristic terminal spined Schistosoma haematobium ova in the urine, as well as by the favorable clinical response to treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Testicular Mass
  • Described genital manifestations in men include funiculitis, epididymitis, granulomata of the seminal vesicles, testicular masses, and prostate lesions which may cause haematospermia and infertility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Subsequently, the patient was referred to our institution for further workup. Upon presentation to our institute, the patient's temperature was 36.8 C, his pulse was 60 beats per minute (bpm), and his blood pressure was 120/70 mm Hg.[jcm.asm.org]
Leukocytes Decreased
  • At follow-up, 6 months after systematic antischistosomiasis and STI syndrome treatment at baseline, the prevalence of seminal leukocytes decreased significantly among the previously seminal egg-positive subjects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Prostatic Lesion
  • Described genital manifestations in men include funiculitis, epididymitis, granulomata of the seminal vesicles, testicular masses, and prostate lesions which may cause haematospermia and infertility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Plasmodium Falciparum
  • KEYWORDS: Abnormal urinary blood; Concomitant infection; Plasmodium falciparum; Proteinuria; Schistosoma haematobium [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Results: S. haematobium prevalence was 79.8%, S. mansoni 13.2% and Plasmodium falciparum 80.2%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our objective was to undertake a study to explore the influence of the measure of excreted egg load caused by Schistosoma haematobium on Plasmodium falciparum parasite densities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To start addressing this issue, the effect of chronic Schistosoma haematobium infection on both the innate and adaptive immune response of Plasmodium falciparum-infected subjects was assessed in an area endemic for both these infections in Gabon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A total of 804 children, 2-19 years of age, were surveyed between July and December 2009 and tested for S. haematobium, Plasmodium falciparum, filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chlamydia Trachomatis
  • Sexually transmitted infection (STI) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis did not act as a confounding factor for the observed associations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Children who continued excreting viable eggs 4 weeks post-treatment received a second dose of PZQ. Re-infection rates were determined in sub-cohort A1 and A2 at 28 and 20 weeks post-treatment, respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Pre-treatment, the most abundant phyla were Bacteroidetes, followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This might be because immature worms at first treatment were not killed and reached their maturity stage after treatment had been done. Thus, new mature worms would have produced viable eggs after the treatment.[doi.org]
  • No difference in efficacy was observed between the three treatment groups on either follow-up.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Previous population-based studies have examined treatment impact on Schistosoma-associated urinary tract disease among children, but much less is known about longer-term treatment benefits for affected adult populations in areas where risk of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Overall prognosis of EMF is poor and this report emphasizes the importance of public health interventions in the control of schistosomiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis in schistosomiasis. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 51, 112 – 119. Gelfand, M. ( 1950 ). Schistosomiasis in South Central Africa, 1st Edn. Post-Graduate Press by Juta & Co. Ltd, London, UK. Gelfand, M. ( 1963 ).[doi.org]

Etiology

  • Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Schistosoma haematobiumis the etiologic agent for urogenital schistosomiasis, a major source of morbidity and mortality for more than 112 million people worldwide.[bio-protocol.org]
  • Hicks RM, Walters CL, Elsebai I, et al (1977) Demonstration of nitrosamines in human urine: preliminary observations on a possible etiology for bladder cancer in association with chronic urinary tract infections.[doi.org]
  • El-Merzabani MM, El-Aser AA, Zakhary NI (1979) Etiological factors of bilharzial bladder cancer in Egypt: nitrosamines and their precursors in urine. Eur J Cancer 15:287–291 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 15.[doi.org]
  • Etiology: The trematodes (flukes) . Schistosomes are flukes that inhabit the portal vascular system. All species have similar life cycles.[meddean.luc.edu]

Epidemiology

  • The probable significance of protective immunity in the epidemiology of schistosome infections is discussed. References Bradley and McCullough, 1973 Egg output stability and the epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium Part II.[doi.org]
  • Epidemiological studies have suggested that host immunological factors may play an important role in co-endemic areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiologic report on S. haematobium infection in Guinea-Bissau since 22 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We tested the performance of our handheld microscope using 60 slides that were randomly chosen from an ongoing epidemiologic study in school-aged children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A key epidemiological feature of schistosomiasis is its small-scale heterogeneity. Locally profiling disease dynamics including risk factors associated with its transmission is essential for designing appropriate control programs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • The patient had never received preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel. After suprapubic aspiration, the cause of the obstructive uropathy was found to be several mature live worms of Schistosoma haematobium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Approximately 2 million annualized praziquantel treatments would be required for preventive chemotherapy at health districts level.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Public Health, National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200025, China. 2 School of Life Science, Fudan University[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Praziquantel treatment is significantly associated with the reversal of S. haematobium induced morbidity, which underscores the importance of preventive chemotherapy programs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of Schistosoma haematobium infections is imperative to prevent chronic manifestations of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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