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Schistosomiasis Japonica


Presentation

  • BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum causes marked liver fibrosis, while lethal syndromes present in advanced schistosomiasis patients. Its management depends on the degree of fibrosis present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • (inanition) (of unknown origin) (persistent) (with chills) (with rigor) R50.9 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code R50.9 Fever, unspecified 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To Fever NOS Fever of unknown origin [FUO] Fever with chills Fever with[icd10data.com]
  • A 28-year-old Marine Corps officer developed Katayama fever with central nervous system (CNS) manifestations 6 weeks after swimming on Leyte Island in the Philippines.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bilharziasis, bilharzia, bilharziosis, and snail fever or, in the acute form, Katayama fever are alternate names for schistosomiasis. Theodore Bilharz identified the parasite Schistosoma hematobium in Egypt in 1851.[medicinenet.com]
  • Katayama fever Another primary condition, called Katayama fever, may also develop from infection with these worms, and it can be very difficult to recognize.[encyclopedia.com]
  • A fever is ubiquitous (safari fever, Katayama fever ) and an infected person may also experience prostration, headache, myalgia and night sweats. A variable set of skin symptoms may also be present, including rash, urticaria and facial oedema.[therapeutique-dermatologique.org]
Malaise
  • The patient was a 58-year old man whose complaints were generalized malaise and right epigastralgia. He had liver cirrhosis and schistosomiasis japonica, previously diagnosed by laparoscopy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a common intravascular infection caused by parasitic Schistosoma trematode worms It is prevalent in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and Asia Acute schistosomiasis, or Katayama syndrome, can present as fever, malaise[bmj.com]
  • Four to 8 weeks after exposure, an acute illness can develop, manifested by fever, malaise, cough, rash, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, lymphadenopathy, and eosinophilia (Katayama fever).[meddean.luc.edu]
  • […] patients develop acute schistosomiasis (Katayama fever) during this one- to two-month period, and their symptoms resemble those for serum sickness and are as follows: Fever Abdominal pain (liver/spleen area) Bloody diarrhea or blood in the stools Cough Malaise[medicinenet.com]
  • The symptomatic, acute phase of illness is known as Katayama fever and presents with fever, malaise, urticaria (raised itchy skin rash) and eosinophilia (raised level of eosinophil white blood cells) [7].[travelhealthpro.org.uk]
Splenectomy
  • […] used in the therapy for obstinate ascites, and endoscopic varices ligation is used in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and both have good effects; hundreds and thousands of severe splenomegaly advanced schistosomiasis patients received splenectomy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Splenectomy improves hemostatic and liver functions in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. PLoS ONE 10 , e0135370 (2015). 166. Richter, J. et al.[nature.com]
Splenomegaly
  • Usually, these patients will present with portal hypertension signs and symptoms, including splenomegaly, gastroesophageal varices, hematemesis, and ascites. Hepatic function is commonly preserved until late stages 2 .[radiopaedia.org]
  • Splenomegaly was noted in seven patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cough
  • Then, fever, chills, cough, and muscle aches can begin within one to two months of infection. However, most people have no symptoms at this early phase of infection.[medicinenet.com]
  • […] intravascular infection caused by parasitic Schistosoma trematode worms It is prevalent in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and Asia Acute schistosomiasis, or Katayama syndrome, can present as fever, malaise, myalgia, fatigue, non-productive cough[bmj.com]
  • Symptoms may include inflammation, cough, late-afternoon fever, skin eruption (giant urticaria), and swelling and tenderness of the liver. There may then be blood in the stools and urine in the more acute stage.[britannica.com]
  • “dead-end” host for nonhuman-pathogenic schistosomes Acute schistosomiasis (also known as schistosomiasis japonica or Katayama syndrome or fever) Systemic hypersensitivity reaction – may occur 2-8 weeks after infection Fever, myalgia, nonproductive cough[arupconsult.com]
  • Four to 8 weeks after exposure, an acute illness can develop, manifested by fever, malaise, cough, rash, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, lymphadenopathy, and eosinophilia (Katayama fever).[meddean.luc.edu]
Aspiration
  • For a definitive diagnosis, we performed ultrasonographic-guided fine needle (21 gauge) aspiration biopsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Diarrhea
  • , diarrheal (disease) (infantile) (inflammatory) R19.7 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code R19.7 Diarrhea, unspecified 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To Diarrhea NOS Type 1 Excludes functional diarrhea ( K59.1 ) neonatal diarrhea ( P78.3 )[icd10data.com]
  • In acute infections with heavy infection due to Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum, a mucoid bloody diarrhea accompanied by tender hepatomegaly occurs.[meddean.luc.edu]
  • […] between active infection and past exposure Generally negative at onset of clinical symptoms Seroconversion occurs 30 days after symptoms and 6 weeks after contact with contaminated water Differential Diagnosis Acute Entamoeba histolytica Rickettsia typhi Diarrhea[arupconsult.com]
  • Those with diagnosed chronic schistosomiasis should seek medical care if their chronic symptoms increase (especially abdominal pain, shortness of breath, bloody diarrhea or bloody urine, seizures, or mental-status changes).[medicinenet.com]
  • Right upper quadrant pain and bloody diarrhea may also occur. [36] These symptoms mimic any acute viral, bacterial, or malarial illness.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Hepatomegaly
  • Hepatomegaly was found in 76.3% (1082/1419); hepatic fibrosis was found in 73.3% (1040/1419); and splenomegaly was found in 18.6% (264/1419).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hepatomegaly rapidly developed in acutely infected persons, with 82% of subjects developing hepatic enlargement within 2 years of reinfection.[academic.oup.com]
  • This may cause hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hepatic fibrosis and various other symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhoea and blood in the stool.[who.int]
Hepatosplenomegaly
  • Portal hypertension can develop and cause hepatosplenomegaly, ascites, and esophageal varices.[meddean.luc.edu]
  • Some patients may also present with hepatosplenomegaly. The clinical signs are more pronounced when the infection is caused by S. mansoni and S. japonicum.[therapeutique-dermatologique.org]
  • […] with abdominal distention, hepatosplenomegaly, pedal edema, pallor, distended abdominal veins, and ascites Intestinal polyposis with heme-positive stool, pallor, and signs of malnutrition CNS symptoms, including focal neurologic findings, seizures, and[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Each lesion represents a cercarial invasion site. 25 A boy with swollen abdomen due to schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) with hepatosplenomegaly. 26 Schistosomiasis (Bilharziasis).[slideplayer.com]
  • In past decades, the day-to-day impact of schistosomiasis was often minimized as “asymptomatic”, except when certain schistosomiasis-specific pathologies such as advanced hepatosplenomegaly, intestinal bleeding (in the case of S. mansoni and S. japonicum[journals.plos.org]
Urticaria
  • […] schis·to·so·mi·a·sis ja·pon·i·ca, Japanese schistosomiasis infection with Schistosoma japonicum, characterized by dysenteric symptoms, painful enlargement of the liver and spleen, dropsy, urticaria, and progressive anemia. schis·to·so·mi·a·sis ja·pon·[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Symptoms may include inflammation, cough, late-afternoon fever, skin eruption (giant urticaria), and swelling and tenderness of the liver. There may then be blood in the stools and urine in the more acute stage.[britannica.com]
  • A variable set of skin symptoms may also be present, including rash, urticaria and facial oedema. Some patients may also present with hepatosplenomegaly.[therapeutique-dermatologique.org]
  • . ; ii) Urticaria, muscle & abdominal pain and patches of pneumonia ; iii) Splenomegaly 3.[histopathology-india.net]

Workup

Liver Biopsy
  • Thus, physicians use liver biopsy for accurate diagnoses. We present 4 patients with hepatic schistosomiasis japonica which were diagnosed using imaging before liver biopsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The administration of praziquantel and corticosteroid drugs in early stages is good for prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis If treated early, prognosis is very good and complete recovery is expected. The illness is treatable, but people can die from the effects of untreated schistomiasis.[encyclopedia.com]
  • What is the prognosis (outcome) for schistosomiasis? Early antiparasitic treatment, especially with acute schistosomiasis, may allow people to recover completely without developing chronic disease.[medicinenet.com]
  • The general prognosis for patients with schistosomiasis japonica of the central nervous system does not seem to be favorable as far as complete recovery is concerned, though marked improvement of function has been observed in most cases.[history.amedd.army.mil]

Etiology

  • The etiologic relationship between Schistosomiasis japonica infection and the hepatocellular carcinoma is also discussed in this report.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ten years after the etiology of the disease had been established, it was demonstrated that the life cycle of the parasite, like that of all other FULL TEXT[annals.org]
  • The etiological and pathogenetic link between helminthiasis and carcinoma should be considered in the same way as for other related inflammatory large-bowel diseases.[deepdyve.com]
  • Whereas the etiological context between chronic infection by Schistosoma haematobium and endemic… CONTINUE READING[semanticscholar.org]

Epidemiology

  • From the 1950s, massive epidemiological investigations and active control measures for schistosomiasis japonica have been carried out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of these infections are discussed separately.[uptodate.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Kunio Okuda, Jean-Pierre Benhamou Springer Science & Business Media, 09.11.2013 - 569 Seiten Portal hypertension is the abnormal pathophysiologic state that develops in liver cirrhosis and certain other disorders with characteristic clinical and hemodynamic[books.google.de]
  • […] in Egypt, Mahgreb region of North Africa Found in areas of the Middle East Eggs hatch within 15 - 30 minutes S. japonicum: Indonesia and parts of China and Southeast Asia S. mekongi: Cambodia and Laos S. intercalatum: parts of Central and West Africa Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • -N.Z. and J.U.); Mechanisms/pathophysiology (B.J.V., D.W.D. and M.S.); Diagnosis, screening and prevention (B.J.V., M.S., D.W.D. and D.P.M.); Management (D.P.M.); Quality of life (J.U.); Outlook (D.P.M. and B.J.V.); Overview of Primer (D.P.M.).[nature.com]

Prevention

  • Author information 1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Biomedical Statistical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shandong Institute of Prevention and Control for Endemic Disease, Jinan, China; Shanghai Institute[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A novel and effective hyperthermia method for Schistosomiasis japonica prevention and treatment. Chinese Science Bulletin, 60 (16), 1461-1464.[pure.qub.ac.uk]

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