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Secondary Aldosteronism

Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess


  • In the adjacent non-neoplastic adrenals, 3 beta-HSD II was markedly present in the hyperplastic glomerulosa zone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract In 1962 two cases of juxtaglomerular (J-G) hyperplasia and secondary aldosteronism without hypertension with otherwise near normal renal function were presented.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Peripheral edema may be present. Diagnosis Serum electrolyte levels Plasma aldosterone Plasma renin activity (PRA) Diagnosis is suspected in patients with hypertension and hypokalemia.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Osteopenia or osteoporosis was not present.[edmcasereports.com]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • *accelerated HTN and renal stenosis are common *normotensive causes incl: congestive heart failure, cirrhosis and nephrotic syndrome *diuretic and laxative use are also causes *rare: juxtaglomerular tumour and Bartter syndrome clinical feature of sec.hyperaldosteronism[quizlet.com]
  • Syphilis 396 Tuberculosis 402 8O HIV Infection 408 References 416 Nephrology 419 AcidBase Disorders 421 Calcium MetabolismHypercalcemia 435 Calcium MetabolismHypocalcemia 439 Dyslipidemia 48 Hypertension 53 Congestive Heart Failure 67 Dilated Cardiomyopathy[books.google.com]
  • In cirrhosis of liver and congestive heart failure, spironolactone is sometimes used to help in reducing the swelling of the ankles and the abdomen. . This article was written by Sarfraz Zaidi, MD, FACE. Dr.[onlinemedinfo.com]
  • heart failure Pregnancy (due to estrogen) Decreased renal perfusion (renal arterial stenosis, nephrosclerosis) Gypoalbuminemia Ovarian tumor Hyperthyroidism Tertiary hyperaldosteronism (Bartter syndrome): Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of renal juxtaglomerular[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • For example, congestive heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver can cause an effective decrease in blood pressure , and narrowing of a renal artery can cause a reduction in the flow of blood to a kidney.[britannica.com]
Weight Gain
  • Weight gain, glucose intolerance, striae, skin thinning, increase in cervical, supraclavicular fat pad, facial plethora, muscle weakness, or osteoporosis in an obese patient.[thecurbsiders.com]
Medication Noncompliance
  • Pseudo-resistant HTN: BP uncontrolled due to medication noncompliance, inadequate dosing, poor choice of agents, etc.[thecurbsiders.com]
Neck Pain
  • Pain 666 Headache 673 Dizziness 686 Urinary Incontinence 691 Acetaminophen Overdose 694 Ethanol Abuse and General Management 698 Alcohol Emergencies 699 Poisoning and Drug Overdose 702 References 708 Gynecology 711 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding 713 Amenorrhea[books.google.com]
Breast Mass
  • Mass 513 Colorectal Cancer 519 Lung Cancer 524 1OO Mediastinal Masses 530 Prostate Cancer 532 Testicular Cancer 536 References 541 Pulmonology 103 Respiratory Failure 545 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 550 Asthma 553 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary[books.google.com]


  • Workup may continue here with dexamethasone suppression test. Final Note The physiologic opposite of hypermineralocorticoidism is type IV (distal) renal tubular acidosis.[medicalmediareview.com]
  • Bowel Disease 230 Peptic Ulcer Disease 235 Pancreatitis 240 Noninfectious Hepatitis and Liver Disease 247 Viral Hepatitis 256 Biliary Disease 261 Cholecystitis 266 References 270 Hematology 45 Anemia 275 Sickle Cell Disease 289 Thrombocytopenia 292 Thrombocytosis[books.google.com]
ST Elevation
  • STEMI - ST Elevation MI - the classical MI 2. NSTEMI - Non-ST Elevation MI.... Anatomy of the Brain Stem External features Anterior view The anterior surface of medulla oblongata is grooved by an anteromedian fissure,on either side...[medicinembbs.blogspot.com]


  • Treatment Treament of cause Sometimes aldosterone antagonists Treatment involves correcting the cause.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Make the best clinical decisions with an enhanced emphasis on evidence-based practice and expert opinions on treatment strategies. Zero in on the most relevant and useful references with the aid of a more focused, concise bibliography.[books.google.com]
  • Rapidly consult with trusted authorities thanks to new expert-opinion treatment strategies and recommendations. Zero in on the most relevant and useful references with the aid of a more focused, concise bibliography.[books.google.com]
  • Secondary Hyperaldosteronism could result in complications that include kidney damage with resultant failure, heart attack, and stroke Treatment and prevention of Secondary Hyperaldosteronism depends upon the underlying causative factor.[dovemed.com]
  • Spironolactone versus placebo, bisoprolol, and doxazosin to determine the optimal treatment for drug-resistant hypertension (PATHWAY-2): a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial.[thecurbsiders.com]


  • HYPERALDOSTERONISM PROGNOSIS The prognosis of patients drastically improves once the tumor is removed.[medicalook.com]
  • Hyperaldosteronism Prognosis With early diagnosis and treatment, the outcome of the disease appears quite good. The prognosis of Secondary Hyperaldosteronism depends on the cause of the syndrome.[primehealthchannel.com]
  • When primary aldosteronism is caused by a solitary adenoma, the prognosis is good. Once this tumor is removed, blood pressure will drop, and 70% of these patients have full remission.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis If a solitary adrenal mass is detected, surgical adrenalectomy will correct hypertension in 75-90% of cases.[radiopaedia.org]


  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome consisting of headache, visual field defects and papilledema of uncertain etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] without renin secretion. leads to sodium and water retention and potassium excretion (HTN and alkalosis) is one of the leading cause of secondary HTN more common in women. the volume leads to renin secretion (and angiotensin II) helpful in diagnosis etiology[quizlet.com]
  • The most common etiologic factors are adrenal adenoma, idiopathic hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex, and occasionally carcinoma of the adrenal gland.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Etiology . The diseases which are followed by sharp renal ischemia (an idiopathic hypertensia, a renal hypertension) can be the cause of a secondary aldosteronism.[infomeds.net]
  • (Etiology) Secondary Hyperaldosteronism is typically caused by a reduced blood flow to the kidneys leading to excess aldosterone production.[dovemed.com]


  • Epidemiology References: [1] [2] [3] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • Epidemiology: The age of onset of hypertension is an important piece of information to help decipher between the different ideologies of primary hyperaldosteronism (Funder et al., 2008).[wikilectures.eu]
  • Epidemiology Many decades ago the prevalence of primary aldosteronism as a cause of hypertension was thought to be very low - figures like 0.5%-2% had been quoted. [ 1 , 2 ] However, it has subsequently emerged that these low prevalence rates were simply[patient.info]
  • The draft problem could be solved by modern method including PCR with the use of several primers focused on different antigens regarding the certain epidemiologic regions. (Fig. 7, Ref. 17.)[sav.sk]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • To explain the pathophysiology, we have hypothesized an abnormal function of ang II receptor signal transduction which excessively stimulates PLA2, resulting in overproduction of PG synthesis in tissues.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This implies that in these complex conditions, successful therapy should address the disorder in aldosterone and also the other underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology and Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Aldosterone and Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels. Seminars in nephrology. 2014;34(5):532-539. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.08.007.[thecurbsiders.com]
  • Secondary hyperaldosteronism Secondary aldosteronism is defined as any pathophysiology that results in an up regulation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone feedback system (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2010).[wikilectures.eu]
  • ., in the kidneys or ovaries ) References: [2] [3] [4] Pathophysiology Autonomous aldosterone secretion and hypertension Under normal conditions, aldosterone secretion is primarily regulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system ( RAAS ) and occurs[amboss.com]


  • Histology Humanitarian Immunology Internal Medicine Medical Ethics Medical Mnemonics Medical Terminologies Medical videos Microbiology Molecular Biology Nephrology Neurology OBG Oncology Ophthalmology Orthopedics Pathology Pediatrics Pharmacology Physiology Preventive[medicinembbs.blogspot.com]
  • HYPERALDOSTERONISM PREVENTION There is no known preventive measure for hyperaldosteronism. Some experts suggest that healthy lifestyle habits like eating healthy, exercising regularly and sleeping well will help prevent the development of tumors.[medicalook.com]
  • Prevention There is no known prevention for most causes of hyperaldosteronism. KEY TERMS Ablative — Used to describe a procedure involving removal of a tissue or body part, or destruction of its function.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Preventative blood pressure checks will pick up such cases. Conn’s syndrome is a hypersecretion state of one of the adrenal glands due to an aldosterone producing adenoma .[nethealthbook.com]

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