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Secondary Hypoparathyroidism


Presentation

  • Usually, it presents with hypocalcemia. Even if there is no established therapeutic treatment, vitamin D or its analogues are required.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present two such rare cases, one with PHPT presenting with choreoathetotic movements and the second with SHPT in ESRD presenting with a seizure disorder.[thejhs.org]
  • Presentation of a rare cause of hypocalcemia in childhood and the necessity of measuring serum electrolyte levels in patients presenting with afebrile seizures. a 7.5-year-old female child presented with afebrile seizures lasting 5 min with postictal[ruralneuropractice.com]
  • This presentation alone is enough to stratify the patient as a high risk for sudden cardiac death and to consider implantation of an automated internal defibrillator.[innovationsincrm.com]
  • Our case is the fourth case of impetigo herpetiformis initially presented during puerperium and the first case of puerperal impetigo herpetiformis that is precipitated by secondary hypoparathyroidism.[casesjournal.biomedcentral.com]
Stridor
  • However, acute hypocalcemia usually results in severe symptoms including laryngospasm, stridor, airway obstruction, neuromuscular irritability, cognitive impairment, prolonged QT interval, and cardiac arrhythmias.[ruralneuropractice.com]
  • Hypoparathyroidism has wide variety of presentations: from the asymptomatic patient with dramatically low serum calcium to the acutely symptomatic patient with neuromuscular irritability, tetany, painful muscle cramps, stridor, and even seizures with[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • Stridor. Convulsions (usually grand mal). Syncope. Emotional lability, anxiety and depression, confusion. Memory impairment. Lethargy. Headaches. Brittle nails. Dry hair and skin. Painful menstruation.[patient.info]
  • SMALL INTESTINE ULCERATION SMELL DISTURBANCE SORE THROAT33 SPASTIC PARAPLEGIAS SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION EPIDURAL SPINAL CORD DYSFUNCTION SPINAL CORD ISCHEMIC SYNDROMES SPLENOMEGALY SPLENOMEGALY AND HEPATOMEGALY38 SPLENOMEGALY CHILDREN20 STEATOHEPATITIS STRIDOR[books.google.de]
Dyspnea
  • SLEEPINESS DELIRIUM26 DELIRIUM DIALYSIS PATIENT26 DEMYELINATING DISEASES40 DIARRHEA ACUTE WATERY AND BLOODY38 DIARRHEA TUBEFED PATIENT14 DIPLOPIA BINOCULAR DIPLOPIA MONOCULAR DIPLOPIA VERTICAL DRY EYE DYSPAREUNIA12 DYSPHAGIA DYSPHAGIA OROPHARYNGEAL38 DYSPNEA[books.google.de]
  • Symptoms Associated with Hypercalcemia Organ system Most common symptoms and possible diagnoses Cardiovascular Angina, dyspnea, palpitations, syncope Possible diagnoses: diastolic dysfunction, dysrhythmias, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy,[aafp.org]

Workup

  • Workup Laboratory Studies Parathyroid hormone Primary hypoparathyroidism is defined by a low concentration of PTH with a concomitant low calcium level.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • These points underscore a premise of the diagnostic workup for any abnormal calcium or PTH state, namely, that the results have to be verified to be secure.[academic.oup.com]

Treatment

  • Compared with pre-study markers, the changes of the above markers were significant after study (p 0.05). (2) The average IMT and AACS were evidently decreased during the 6 and 12 months of study in the treatment group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT BASIC INFORMATION DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT BASIC INFORMATION DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT PEARLS CONSIDERATIONS BASIC INFORMATION DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT PEARLS CONSIDERATIONS BASIC INFORMATION DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT BASIC INFORMATION DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT[books.google.com]
  • Even if there is no established therapeutic treatment, vitamin D or its analogues are required.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology is emphasized throughout, providing a sound basis for discussions of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis that follow.[books.google.com]

Prognosis

  • Pathophysiology is emphasized throughout, providing a sound basis for discussions of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis that follow.[books.google.com]
  • Support Groups: Expectations (prognosis): The outcome for secondary hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause. When treated, rickets generally has a good prognosis. Other causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism have variable outcomes.[uclahealth.org]
  • Prognosis The regular monitoring required to ensure appropriate calcium levels means that the prognosis is challenging for many people. This may improve if synthetic PTH becomes widely available.[patient.info]
  • Prognosis Hypoparathyroidism can be a temporary condition that stops when its cause is treated, or a permanent condition.[healthand.com]
  • RISULTATI ESTETICI) DELLA CHIRURGIA MININVASIVA CHE VIENE EFFETTUATA SIA NELLA CHIRURGIA TIROIDEA CHE NELLA CHIRURGIA PARATIROIDEA UNA ULTERIORE LINEA DI RICERCA E' LO STUDIO SULLA UTILITA' DEGLI ONCOGENI BRAF E RAS NELLA PIANIFICAZIONE CHIRURGICA E NELLA PROGNOSI[aosp.bo.it]

Etiology

  • Etiology Postoperative : ( most common cause of hypoparathyroidism in adults): secondary to thyroidectomy , parathyroidectomy , or radical neck dissection Autoimmune : second most common cause Congenital : Parathyroid aplasia or hypoplasia ( DiGeorge[amboss.com]
  • Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disease in childhood, characterized by inadequate PTH, resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. [3] Management of hypoparathyroidism is complex, depending on underlying etiology and is individualized, depending on[ruralneuropractice.com]
  • Thus, idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and resulting hypoparathyroid cataract are relatively rare, where the underlying etiologies and pathogenesis remain to be clarified.[omicsonline.org]
  • Presentation of hypoparathyroidism: etiologies and clinical features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jun;101(6):2300-12. [2] Shoback D. Clinical practice. Hypoparathyroidism.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • PULSELESS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY PUPILLARY DILATATION POOR RESPONSE TO DARKNESS PURPURA PURPURA NONPALPABLE20 PURPURA NONPURPURIC DISORDERS SIMULATING PURPURA1 QT INTERVAL PROLONGATION22 RECTAL MASS PALPABLE38 RECTAL PAIN RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA ACQUIRED ETIOLOGY[books.google.com]

Epidemiology

  • The Epidemiological Study of Dystonia in Europe (ESDE) Collaborative Group. A prevalence study of primary dystonia in eight European countries. J Neurol 2000 ;247 : 787-792 2. Fahn S. Concept and classification of dystonia.[functionalneurology.com]
  • Hypoparathyroidism in the adult: epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, target-organ involvement, treatment, and challenges for future research. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Oct;26(10):2317-37.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Hypoparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2016 Jun. 101 (6):2284-99. [Medline] . Powers J, Joy K, Ruscio A, Lagast H.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • "Hypoparathyroidism in the adult: epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, target-organ involvement, treatment, and challenges for future research" . J. Bone Miner. Res . 26 (10): 2317–37. doi : 10.1002/jbmr.483 . PMC 3405491 . PMID 21812031 .[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The prevalence of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism, using the 8-year figures, is more consistent with epidemiological expectations.[academic.oup.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology is emphasized throughout, providing a sound basis for discussions of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis that follow.[books.google.com]
  • This highly acclaimed text offers ICU clinicians a new understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness and new therapeutic approaches to critical care.[books.google.com]
  • […] most common cause Congenital : Parathyroid aplasia or hypoplasia ( DiGeorge syndrome ) PTH gene mutation Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia Nonautoimmune destruction : Pseudohypoparathyroidism (type 1A) : Etiology : defective G s protein alpha subunit Pathophysiology[amboss.com]
  • Role of the vestibular system in the pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001 ; 71:285-288 15. Galardi G, Perani D, Grassi F et al.[functionalneurology.com]
  • Hypoparathyroidism in the adult: epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, target-organ involvement, treatment, and challenges for future research. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Oct;26(10):2317-37.[bestpractice.bmj.com]

Prevention

  • Succinct, targeted coverage of normal childhood growth and development, as well as the diagnosis, management, and prevention of common pediatric diseases and disorders, make this an ideal medical reference book for students, pediatric residents, nurse[books.google.de]
  • Rapidly find the answers you need with separate sections on diseases and disorders, differential diagnosis, clinical algorithms, laboratory results, and clinical preventive services, plus an at-a-glance format that uses cross-references, outlines, bullets[books.google.com]
  • Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska J: KDIGO clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2010;120:300-306.[karger.com]
  • The awareness of the possible occurrence of impetigo herpetiformis during the puerperium allows early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of maternal complications.[casesjournal.biomedcentral.com]

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