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Secondary Malnutrition


Presentation

  • Since this paper was submitted for publication a detailed discussion of this subject has been presented by Clifford.* Author Affiliations *Pediatrician, Burbank Hospital; clinical associate in children's medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital.[nejm.org]
  • The present study was undertaken to determine the clinico-etiological spectrum of secondary malnutrition in a tertiary care hospital of India. It also aimed at identifying asymptomatic masqueraders of malnutrition.[scopemed.org]
  • The recorded heights, presented as centiles of present day (NCHS) standards, are shown in Fig. 7. The children were tiny by modern standards, as small as the Bundi tribes of the New Guinea Highlands.[archive.unu.edu]
  • One out of every two children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) will develop malnutrition or have worsening of baseline malnutrition and present with specific micronutrient deficiencies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Presentation The most common presenting feature is frequent infections.[patient.info]
Weight Loss
  • Symptoms of undernutrition and starvation include cramps, diarrhea, weakness, and weight loss. Protein-energy malnutrition, also called protein-calorie malnutritution, occurs when the diet is low in both proteins and calories.[dietsinfo.org]
  • Many people with malnutrition might also suffer from fatigue, weight loss, low immune levels and dizziness. Different types of malnutrition Malnutrition comes in two forms, primary malnutrition and secondary nutrition.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • The absence of edema (fluid retention) distinguishes marasmus-like secondary PEM, a gradual wasting process that begins with weight loss and progresses to mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition (cachexia).[healthofchildren.com]
  • Diagnosis Malnutrition can be recognized by correlating the symptoms with the visual observation and physical examination of body fat, eating habits, appetite, weight loss, edema and muscle strength.[allnutriments.blogspot.com]
  • The absence of edema distinguishes marasmuslike secondary PEM, a gradual wasting process that begins with weight loss and progresses to mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition (cachexia).[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Fatigue
  • 1)loss of muscle fat 2)fatigue 3)decrease immune fxn 4)stunted growth 5)loss of hair 6)dry and scaly skin 1)nutrition 2)infections 3)socioeconomic factors[quizlet.com]
  • Many people with malnutrition might also suffer from fatigue, weight loss, low immune levels and dizziness. Different types of malnutrition Malnutrition comes in two forms, primary malnutrition and secondary nutrition.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • Some common conditions of malnutrition include: fatigue, dizziness, decaying teeth, swollen gums, poor immune function, slowed reaction times, poor growth, muscle weakness, learning problems, bloated stomach and osteoporosis.[livestrong.com]
  • Some of the symptoms of malnourishment include: Lack of energy or constant fatigue Dizziness Chronic diarrhoea Skin problems Unhealthy nails Irritability Hair loss Poor night vision Breathlessness Pain in muscles, joints, or bones What Should You Do About[alcoholmastery.com]
  • Marasmus results from both energy and protein deficiency and is characterized by wasting, fatigue, and apathy.[unboundmedicine.com]
Cerebral Palsy
  • Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) frequently suffer secondary protein energy malnutrition (PEM). Unlike marasmus and kwashiorkor, this PEM is uncomplicated by micronutrient deficiency, parasitism and infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Failure to Thrive
  • Common gastrointestinal symptoms include diarrhoea, malabsorption and failure to thrive or losing weight.[patient.info]
  • Failure to Thrive and Pediatric Undernutrition: a Transdisciplinary Approach. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes, 1999. PERIODICALS Gonzalez-Barranco, et al. "Early Malnutrition and Metabolic Abnormalities Later in Life."[healthofchildren.com]
Gagging
  • Cartilage, the tissue which expands in growth, is composed of a network of collagen fibrils with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) packaging.[archive.unu.edu]
Delayed Wound Healing
  • Delayed wound healing may be seen owing to nutritional deficiencies. Etiology There are two principal theories regarding the etiology of kwashiorkor: the classical theory of protein deficiency and the newer theory of free radical damage.[unboundmedicine.com]
Suggestibility
  • Judd Sparling for his pathological examination of the placentas and for his helpful suggestions in the preparation of this paper, and to Dr. Stewart H. Clifford for advice and editorial suggestions.[nejm.org]
  • Examples from Bangladesh and China show that even in food-secure or high-income households, some members may be undernourished while others may be overweight, suggesting that both situations may be seen within the same household [6].[cmrinstitute.org]

Treatment

  • The failure to catch-up is mainly due to treatment with steroids.[archive.unu.edu]
  • Conclusions: Identification of secondary malnutrition and treatment of the underlying disorder is a must to achieve optimal nutritional outcomes and decrease the burden of malnutrition. Key words: Asymptomatic masqueraders, Malnutrition, Secondary[scopemed.org]
  • Tertiary prevention; nutritional rehabilitation o o Nutritional rehabilitation services. o o Hospital treatment . o o Follow up of cases.[raystudent.blogspot.com]
  • Many diverse injuries, treatments or diseases can reduce barrier integrity resulting in SID, as well as a wide range of iatrogenic interventions. The treatment of SID depends on both the presentation and aetiology.[els.net]
  • Skilled staff (nurses and doctors) time and resources should be mainly directed to those few children who fail to respond to the standard treatment. Failure to respond to standard treatment is a "diagnosis" in its own right.[motherchildnutrition.org]

Prognosis

  • Some conditions such as selective IgAD have a good prognosis.[patient.info]
  • Prognosis Most children can lose some of their body weight without side effects, but losing more than 40 percent is usually fatal. Death usually results from heart failure, an electrolyte imbalance, or low body temperature.[healthofchildren.com]
  • Prognosis Most people can lose up to 10% of their body weight without side effects, but losing more than 40% is almost always fatal. Death usually results from heart failure, an electrolyte imbalance, or low body temperature.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Etiology

  • The present study was undertaken to determine the clinico-etiological spectrum of secondary malnutrition in a tertiary care hospital of India. It also aimed at identifying asymptomatic masqueraders of malnutrition.[scopemed.org]
  • Etiology There are two principal theories regarding the etiology of kwashiorkor: the classical theory of protein deficiency and the newer theory of free radical damage.[unboundmedicine.com]

Epidemiology

  • The PROMISS consortium contains worldwide expertise in epidemiology, clinical trials, geriatrics, nutrition, physical activity, microbiomics, as well as in behaviour, consumer, sensory and computer sciences.[cordis.europa.eu]
  • Epidemiology Malnutrition underlies 55% of childhood mortality worldwide. Kwashiorkor may occur at any age but is seen most frequently in children 1–3 years of age. Kwashiorkor is seldom seen in the 1st year of life.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • […] syndromes associated with immunodeficiency: a wide range of inherited immunodeficiency conditions has been identified, many involving a single gene. [ 14 ] Secondary immunodeficiencies There are many possible causes and so it is difficult to obtain exact epidemiological[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology of malnutrition Malnutrition can be classified as either primary or secondary . The deficiencies associated with PCM usually are multiple, involving varying degrees of calorie, protein, vitamin, and mineral deficits.[alpfmedical.info]
  • Pathophysiology Temperature regulation is impaired, leading to hypothermia in a cold environment and hyperthermia in a hot environment.[unboundmedicine.com]

Prevention

  • There are primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention for malnutrition.[raystudent.blogspot.com]
  • The first two years of a child’s life are critical for preventing malnutrition. Sustaining the quality and quantity of a child’s diet during this period can prevent future problems.[actionagainsthunger.ca]
  • PRevention Of Malnutrition In Senior Subjects in the EU From 2016-04-01 to 2021-03-31, ongoing project PROMISS Website Project details Total cost: EUR 6 915 506,25 EU contribution: EUR 6 915 506,25 Coordinated in: Netherlands Funding scheme: RIA - Research[cordis.europa.eu]
  • In secondary malnutrition, people suffering from diarrhoea will not benefit fully from food because frequent stools prevents adequate absorption of nutrients.[who.int]
  • Secondary malnutrition is indirectly caused by diseases and conditions that prevent individuals from properly absorbing enough calories and/or nutrients.[oawhealth.com]

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