Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Secondary Malnutrition


Presentation

  • Since this paper was submitted for publication a detailed discussion of this subject has been presented by Clifford.* Author Affiliations *Pediatrician, Burbank Hospital; clinical associate in children's medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital.[nejm.org]
  • The present study was undertaken to determine the clinico-etiological spectrum of secondary malnutrition in a tertiary care hospital of India. It also aimed at identifying asymptomatic masqueraders of malnutrition.[scopemed.org]
  • The recorded heights, presented as centiles of present day (NCHS) standards, are shown in Fig. 7. The children were tiny by modern standards, as small as the Bundi tribes of the New Guinea Highlands.[archive.unu.edu]
  • Overweight risk was present in 15.4% and overweight in 12.2%.[journals.lww.com]
  • Anemia and manifestations of multi vitamin deficiencies are present, and there is evidence of immune deficiency, particularly of T cell-mediated immunity.[humpath.com]
Weight Loss
  • In adult volunteers who fasted for 30 to 40 days, weight loss was marked (25% of initial weight). If starvation is more prolonged, weight loss may reach 50% in adults and possibly more in children.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Symptoms of undernutrition and starvation include cramps, diarrhea, weakness, and weight loss. Protein-energy malnutrition, also called protein-calorie malnutritution, occurs when the diet is low in both proteins and calories.[dietsinfo.org]
  • The absence of edema (fluid retention) distinguishes marasmus-like secondary PEM, a gradual wasting process that begins with weight loss and progresses to mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition (cachexia).[healthofchildren.com]
  • When to call the doctor The warning signs of malnutrition are: loss of appetite pronounced weight loss without dieting pronounced weight loss because of inappropriate dieting failure to grow listlessness and apathy hair and skin changes a swollen abdomen[health24.com]
  • Many people with malnutrition might also suffer from fatigue, weight loss, low immune levels and dizziness. Different types of malnutrition Malnutrition comes in two forms, primary malnutrition and secondary nutrition.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
Fatigue
  • […] marasmus 6 effects of marasmus 1)loss of muscle fat 2)fatigue 3)decrease immune fxn 4)stunted growth 5)loss of hair 6)dry and scaly skin 3 causes of marasmus 1)nutrition 2)infections 3)socioeconomic factors YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... 27 terms Malnutrition[quizlet.com]
  • Many people with malnutrition might also suffer from fatigue, weight loss, low immune levels and dizziness. Different types of malnutrition Malnutrition comes in two forms, primary malnutrition and secondary nutrition.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • Some common conditions of malnutrition include: fatigue, dizziness, decaying teeth, swollen gums, poor immune function, slowed reaction times, poor growth, muscle weakness, learning problems, bloated stomach and osteoporosis.[livestrong.com]
  • Some of the symptoms of malnourishment include: Lack of energy or constant fatigue Dizziness Chronic diarrhoea Skin problems Unhealthy nails Irritability Hair loss Poor night vision Breathlessness Pain in muscles, joints, or bones What Should You Do About[alcoholmastery.com]
  • Marasmus results from both energy and protein deficiency and is characterized by wasting, fatigue, and apathy.[unboundmedicine.com]
Cerebral Palsy
  • Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) frequently suffer secondary protein energy malnutrition (PEM). Unlike marasmus and kwashiorkor, this PEM is uncomplicated by micronutrient deficiency, parasitism and infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Feeding method and health outcomes of children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr 2004; 145(Suppl 2):S28–S32. 8. Gangil A, Patwari AK, Aneja S, et al. Feeding problems in children with cerebral palsy. Indian Pediatr 2001; 38:839–846. 9.[journals.lww.com]
Burkina Faso
  • In Burkina Faso, 4.1% were excluded by WHO-2006 and 12.5% were excluded by SMART, while in Turkey 0.3% were excluded by WHO-2006 and 1.3% by SMART.[ennonline.net]
  • Faso which used MUAC for admission. 31 One programme in India also reported MUAC to function as an acceptable monitoring tool after assessing discharge WHZ, length of stay and average weight gain of cases admitted and discharged on MUAC. 32 Médecins[academic.oup.com]
Accelerated Growth
  • Therefore, we believe that the rates of acute and chronic malnutrition found in the present study exemplify secondary malnutrition, which is associated with biological conditions such as pediatric periods of accelerated growth and increased nutritional[journals.lww.com]
Failure to Thrive
  • Lack of calories and protein too many calories Hypotrophy (protein-energy malnutrition) Hypostature Failure to thrive Paratrophy Obesity 14. • Malnutrition undernutrition • Hypotrophy undernutrition • Hypotrophy Malnutrition • Failure to thrive Hypostature[slideshare.net]
  • Common gastrointestinal symptoms include diarrhoea, malabsorption and failure to thrive or losing weight.[patient.info]
  • Failure to Thrive and Pediatric Undernutrition: a Transdisciplinary Approach. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes, 1999. PERIODICALS Gonzalez-Barranco, et al. "Early Malnutrition and Metabolic Abnormalities Later in Life."[healthofchildren.com]
  • Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578. helpful and should be mandatory when nonspecific failure to thrive with unexplained deterioration in nutritional status is evident. 7 DIETARY INDICES An assessment of dietary intake is[nap.edu]
Gagging
  • Cartilage, the tissue which expands in growth, is composed of a network of collagen fibrils with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) packaging.[archive.unu.edu]
Dysphagia
  • […] use of food enhancers and caloric supplements between meals) Treatment of depression and other underlying disorders Use of orexigenic drugs, anabolic steroids, or both The long-term use of gastrostomy tube feeding is essential for patients with severe dysphagia[merckmanuals.com]
Delayed Wound Healing
  • Delayed wound healing may be seen owing to nutritional deficiencies. Etiology There are two principal theories regarding the etiology of kwashiorkor: the classical theory of protein deficiency and the newer theory of free radical damage.[unboundmedicine.com]

Workup

  • Practical nutritional assessment includes the following: Complete history, including a detailed dietary history Growth measurements, including weight and length/height; head circumference in children younger than 3 years Complete physical examination See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Anergy
  • […] triceps skinfold Easy hair pluckability b Reduced midarm muscle circumference Edema Laboratory findings Serum albumin normal (marasmus, no inflammation) or decreased (cachexia, with inflammation) Serum albumin Total iron-binding capacity Lymphocytes Anergy[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]

Treatment

  • MUAC, WHZ and weight showed parallel responses to treatment.[academic.oup.com]
  • The failure to catch-up is mainly due to treatment with steroids.[archive.unu.edu]
  • Conclusions: Identification of secondary malnutrition and treatment of the underlying disorder is a must to achieve optimal nutritional outcomes and decrease the burden of malnutrition. Key words: Asymptomatic masqueraders, Malnutrition, Secondary[scopemed.org]
  • This may potentially lead to inconsistent, inefficient and inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. This is, to the authors’ knowledge, the first paper to highlight this important issue.[ennonline.net]
  • Skilled staff (nurses and doctors) time and resources should be mainly directed to those few children who fail to respond to the standard treatment. Failure to respond to standard treatment is a "diagnosis" in its own right.[motherchildnutrition.org]

Prognosis

  • Some conditions such as selective IgAD have a good prognosis.[patient.info]
  • The consistent finding that nutritional status influences patient prognosis underscores the importance of preventing, detecting, and treating malnutrition. Definitions for forms of PEM are in flux.[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • Prognosis Most people can lose up to 10% of their body weight without side effects, but losing more than 40% is almost always fatal. Death usually results from heart failure, an electrolyte imbalance, or low body temperature.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Prognosis Most children can lose some of their body weight without side effects, but losing more than 40 percent is usually fatal. Death usually results from heart failure, an electrolyte imbalance, or low body temperature.[healthofchildren.com]
  • Body composition and prognosis in chronic systolic heart failure: the obesity paradox. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91:891-4. Medline 36. Uthamalingam S, Kandala J, Daley M, Patvardhan E, Capodilupo R, Moore SA, et al.[revespcardiol.org]

Etiology

  • The present study was undertaken to determine the clinico-etiological spectrum of secondary malnutrition in a tertiary care hospital of India. It also aimed at identifying asymptomatic masqueraders of malnutrition.[scopemed.org]
  • Etiology There are two principal theories regarding the etiology of kwashiorkor: the classical theory of protein deficiency and the newer theory of free radical damage.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Etiology PEM PEM Primary (non organic) Insufficiency of food, Inadequate or unbalanced diet Secondary (organic) Problems with digestion or absorption, Chronic illnesses 26.[slideshare.net]
  • However, consensus guidelines now address malnutrition irrespective of etiology. ASPEN identified two alternative ways to diagnose malnutrition: BMI and unintentional weight loss.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • With regard to the etiology, the patient had a rapid and progressive vascular collapse.[elsevier.es]

Epidemiology

  • In chapter 3, epidemiology of protein-energy malnutrition in Sri Lanka; prevalence and trend in different types; age, gender and district distribution of the disease; possible causes of the issue presented.[ukessays.com]
  • The PROMISS consortium contains worldwide expertise in epidemiology, clinical trials, geriatrics, nutrition, physical activity, microbiomics, as well as in behaviour, consumer, sensory and computer sciences.[cordis.europa.eu]
  • Epidemiology Malnutrition underlies 55% of childhood mortality worldwide. Kwashiorkor may occur at any age but is seen most frequently in children 1–3 years of age. Kwashiorkor is seldom seen in the 1st year of life.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1439-44. Medline 3. Barba R, Zapatero A, Losa JE, Valdés V, Todolí JA, Di M, et al.[revespcardiol.org]
  • […] syndromes associated with immunodeficiency: a wide range of inherited immunodeficiency conditions has been identified, many involving a single gene. [ 14 ] Secondary immunodeficiencies There are many possible causes and so it is difficult to obtain exact epidemiological[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology of malnutrition Malnutrition can be classified as either primary or secondary . The deficiencies associated with PCM usually are multiple, involving varying degrees of calorie, protein, vitamin, and mineral deficits.[alpfmedical.info]
  • Pathophysiology Temperature regulation is impaired, leading to hypothermia in a cold environment and hyperthermia in a hot environment.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Pathophysiological changes nutritional and energy deficits body composition changes metabolic changes anatomic changes 31.[slideshare.net]
  • Pathophysiology Malnutrition affects virtually every organ system. Dietary protein is needed to provide amino acids for synthesis of body proteins and other compounds that have various functional roles.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology The initial metabolic response is decreased metabolic rate. To supply energy, the body first breaks down adipose tissue.[merckmanuals.com]

Prevention

  • There are primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention for malnutrition.[raystudent.blogspot.com]
  • The first two years of a child’s life are critical for preventing malnutrition. Sustaining the quality and quantity of a child’s diet during this period can prevent future problems.[actionagainsthunger.ca]
  • Can malnutrition be prevented? Protein-energy malnutrition can be prevented if the underlying causes of poverty and lack of food, education and hygiene can be eliminated.[health24.com]
  • The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability.[nap.edu]
  • PRevention Of Malnutrition In Senior Subjects in the EU From 2016-04-01 to 2021-03-31, ongoing project PROMISS Website Project details Total cost: EUR 6 915 506,25 EU contribution: EUR 6 915 506,25 Coordinated in: Netherlands Funding scheme: RIA - Research[cordis.europa.eu]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!