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Sepsis in Premature Infants

Sepsis of Newborn due to Group B Streptococcus


Presentation

  • This abnormal HR behavior may help to monitor premature infants presenting with frequent and severe bradycardias. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The present study is aimed to determine serum and urine interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in premature infants with late onset sepsis (LOS) and to evaluate if urine IL-8 is a useful test for LOS diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For the study, patients were classified under two groups, as they had presented or not neonatal sepsis and these groups were compared according to variables gathered during the neonatal period and also with regard to the occurrence of sequels of neurodevelopment[atlasofscience.org]
  • In cases of EOS, the same bacterial pathogen was confirmed to be present in both amniotic fluid and cord blood.[biorxiv.org]
  • The authors present the case of extremely preterm twins who both developed life-threatening coliform sepsis in second postnatal week within a short time period of each other. Methods Case report.[adc.bmj.com]
Osteopenia
  • Abstract Neonatal sepsis is very common in preterm infants, and severe morbidity during the neonatal period is a major cause of osteopenia of prematurity. We examined the effect of neonatal sepsis on bone turnover markers in premature infants.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Indecisiveness
  • Diagnostic indecision leads to increased morbidity due to delayed treatment and overuse of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics 5.[biorxiv.org]
Neonatal Seizures
  • seizures, perinatal asphyxia, or other pathology which could lead to increased intracranial pressure Cardiovascular - Impairment of oxygenation from congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema (PDA, coarctation, etc.), or from shunting (cyanotic heart[uichildrens.org]

Workup

  • Blood samples for bone turnover markers were collected during the initial sepsis workup, and at the end of the first week of treatment, and were compared to the corresponding weekly changes in bone markers in the controls.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A sepsis workup may be needed to help identify the location of the infection and type of microorganism causing the infection. A sepsis workup may include the following procedures: Blood tests Lumbar puncture (also called spinal tap).[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • Except in the case of obvious acute viral bronchiolitis, the current practice in newborns less than 30 days old is to perform a complete workup including complete blood count with differential, blood culture, urinalysis, urine culture, and cerebrospinal[en.wikipedia.org]
Haemophilus Parainfluenzae
  • As shown in Table 2, positive organisms in PS were: S agalactiae (n 2), E coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Streptococcus gallolyticus, Sneathia sanguineges, and Actinomyces neuii.[biorxiv.org]

Treatment

  • Lauterbach R (1993) Pentoxifylline treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. Eur J Pediatr 152 5:460 Google Scholar 3.[link.springer.com]
  • The 4th edition includes an entirely new section on pediatric obesity: epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment and treatment. It includes new chapters on celiac disease, food allergies and iron.[books.google.com]
  • Blood samples for bone turnover markers were collected during the initial sepsis workup, and at the end of the first week of treatment, and were compared to the corresponding weekly changes in bone markers in the controls.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It maintains a clinical focus while providing state-of-the-art diagnosis and treatment techniques.[books.google.com]
  • Extremely Low Birth Weight — Infant, Newborn — Infant, Premature — Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology/microbiology — Male — Prospective Studies — Risk Factors — Sepsis/complications/epidemiology — Sickness Impact Profile — Switzerland/epidemiology — Treatment[archive-ouverte.unige.ch]

Prognosis

  • This study did not carry out either any long-term monitoring of infants with sepsis to assess the prognosis of this infection.[degruyter.com]
  • Prognosis and Treatment Sepsis in a newborn is treated with antibiotics given intravenously. Treatment is started even before laboratory results are available; a different antibiotic may later be chosen based on the results of laboratory tests.[hon.ch]
  • Prognosis and Treatment Sepsis in a newborn is treated with antibiotics given intravenously. Antibiotics are often started even before laboratory and culture results are available.[rchsd.org]
  • What is the prognosis? In cases of untreated neonatal sepsis, the mortality can be as high as 50 to 100%.[jfhc.co.uk]
  • At the lowest gestational ages, a large proportion of deaths with the poorest survival prognosis.[omicsonline.org]

Etiology

  • Keywords Child, Preschool — Cohort Studies — Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology/etiology/microbiology — Female — Follow-Up Studies — Humans — Infant — Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight — Infant, Newborn — Infant, Premature — Infant, Premature, Diseases[archive-ouverte.unige.ch]
  • Our study did not determine viruses as the etiology of sepsis. About 78.2% of infants with sepsis in our study had maternal risk factors such as a history of fever and of meconeal amniotic fluid.[degruyter.com]
  • Abstract The epidemiology, etiology and outcome of neonatal sepsis are changing over time.[nature.com]
  • Chronic - The management of apnea of prematurity always involves diagnosing and correcting other potential etiologies, before attributing a specific neonate's apnea to prematurity alone.[uichildrens.org]
  • Primary outcome measures were the incidence of the bacterial infection and its etiology in cases with suspected sepsis. The secondary outcome measure was the bacterial resistance to antibiotics used.[jcnonweb.com]

Epidemiology

  • epidemiology/microbiology — Male — Prospective Studies — Risk Factors — Sepsis/complications/epidemiology — Sickness Impact Profile — Switzerland/epidemiology — Treatment Outcome Identifiers DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-3338 PMID: 21768312 Full text Article[archive-ouverte.unige.ch]
  • The 4th edition includes an entirely new section on pediatric obesity: epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment and treatment. It includes new chapters on celiac disease, food allergies and iron.[books.google.com]
  • Acta Paediatr 2008;97:1376-1380. van den Hoogen A, Gerards LJ, Verboon-Maciolek MA, Fleer A, Krediet TG: Long-term trends in the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis and antibiotic susceptibility of causative agents. Neonatology 2010;97:22-28.[karger.com]
  • We now need to have more studies and more tools; specially molecular tools to study the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen.[atmph.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Among the pediatric texts available, none deals with the physiologic or pathophysiologic basis of nutrition in pediatric health and disease in children of all ages.[books.google.com]
  • Neonatology: Pathophysiology and Management of the Newborn. 3rd ed., Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987: 483-484. Martin RJ, Miller MJ, Carlo WA. Pathogenesis of apnea in preterm infants. J Pediatr 1986;109:733-741. Rall TW.[uichildrens.org]
  • Pathophysiology: the role of the mediators and bacterial agent Several proinflammatory cytokines are produced and secreted because of the bacterial agent in the blood stream.[scielo.br]
  • Tabano, Claudio Pelucchi, Beatrice Ghirardi, Leonardo Terranova, Monica Miozzo, Fabio Mosca, Nicola Principi x Published: July 7, 2014 Abstract Identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in sepsis may help to clarify the pathophysiology[journals.plos.org]
  • Overgrowth of these organisms in the neonatal lumen is a component of the multifactorial pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Methods studied to prevent late-onset sepsis include early feedings, immune globulin administration, prophylactic antimicrobial administration, and improved hand hygiene.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of this study is to show whether Veronate, a donor-selected staphylococcal human immune globulin intravenous (IGIV), can prevent an infection in the blood caused by staphylococcal bacteria in premature babies weighing between 500 and 1250[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • prevention of infections in very premature babies (LACUNA), ISRCTN66482337; oral lactoferrin supplementation for prevention of sepsis in preterm neonate, NCT01821989; Enteral Lactoferrin In Neonates (ELFIN), ISRCTN88261002 [ 4 ].[omicsonline.org]
  • Risk Factors for Fetal Sepsis Maternal Group B streptococcus infection Infection (like chorioamnionitis) Unavoidable preterm delivery Rupture of membranes more than 24 hours earlier Preventing and Treating Fetal Sepsis Fetal sepsis can be prevented by[birthinjuryjustice.org]

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