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Septicemia

Blood Poisoning


Presentation

  • CASE SUMMARY: An 11-year-old male with a history of aplastic anemia presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of cough and purulent nasal discharge 6 months after undergoing bone marrow transplant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Presentation [ 12 ] Early recognition is essential. Presenting features may be nonspecific and vague. A high degree of vigilance is therefore required at all times. Patients may have presented a few days earlier with a focus of infection.[patient.info]
  • We document a previously unreported case of a pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm (PAP) that developed in a pediatric patient initially presenting with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus hip joint sepsis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a fatal case of M. haemolytica septicemia in a seven-month-old infant who presented with prolonged fever, sepsis, and pneumonitis without discernable preceding history of animal bites or contact.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The report put forwards some lacunae in the infection control practices that are presently followed in the country.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • The typical course for cases of bacterial superinfection involves a second peak of high fever; other clinical signs are variable. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia after rotavirus gastroenteritis is a rare but dangerous entity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Piperacillin/tazobactam and tobramycin were administered, but the patient worsened clinically, with fever and chills.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a fatal case of M. haemolytica septicemia in a seven-month-old infant who presented with prolonged fever, sepsis, and pneumonitis without discernable preceding history of animal bites or contact.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Alteration of antifungal treatment to liposomal amphotericin B resolved the fever with favorable clinical response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Synonyms: blood poisoning, septicaemia Types: show 5 types... hide 5 types... childbed fever, puerperal fever serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during childbirth or abortion (usually attributable to unsanitary conditions); formerly widespread[vocabulary.com]
Chills
  • Abstract A previously healthy, 67-year-old, man with past medical history of myocardial infarction and hypertension was rushed to the emergency room after sudden onset of fever, chills, severe rigors, hypotension, tachycardia and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Piperacillin/tazobactam and tobramycin were administered, but the patient worsened clinically, with fever and chills.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include chills, high fever, and rapid breathing and heart rate, and it can progress quickly to confusion, altered mental state, and shock. Seeking early medical treatment for infections is key to preventing septicemia.[alabamapublichealth.gov]
  • Symptoms Most patients have fever and chills, often of abrupt onset. However, some patients may be hypothermic (low temperature). Patients may breathe more rapidly and have changes in mental status (how they think, their alertness, etc.).[healthcentral.com]
  • The onset of septicemia is signaled by a high fever, chills, weakness, and excessive sweating, followed by a decrease in blood pressure.[britannica.com]
Weakness
  • The onset of septicemia is signaled by a high fever, chills, weakness, and excessive sweating, followed by a decrease in blood pressure.[britannica.com]
  • Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations, and 18 were best-practice statements. No recommendation was provided for four questions.[doi.org]
  • This concise evidence-based review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the current data to inform the practicing clinician as to which patients are likely to derive significant benefit from corticosteroid treatment, while we await more definitive[doi.org]
  • Septicemia often occurs in people with weak immune systems and can be very dangerous, especially for older adults The bacteria that cause septicemia don't start out in the bloodstream.[verywell.com]
  • Symptoms include chills, high fever, dropping blood pressure, racing heart beat, confusion, weakness, pale face, sweating, and dropping oxygen levels. To put it mildly, you are very, very sick and need emergency medical attention.[safepatientproject.org]
High Fever
  • The typical course for cases of bacterial superinfection involves a second peak of high fever; other clinical signs are variable. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia after rotavirus gastroenteritis is a rare but dangerous entity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include chills, high fever, and rapid breathing and heart rate, and it can progress quickly to confusion, altered mental state, and shock. Seeking early medical treatment for infections is key to preventing septicemia.[alabamapublichealth.gov]
  • […] toxic substances in the blood fowl cholera an acute diarrheal disease (especially of chickens) caused by the microorganism that causes hemorrhagic septicemia shipping fever, shipping pneumonia a deadly form of septicemia in cattle and sheep; involves high[vocabulary.com]
  • The onset of septicemia is signaled by a high fever, chills, weakness, and excessive sweating, followed by a decrease in blood pressure.[britannica.com]
  • It also may progress into septicemia, a more serious blood infection that is always accompanied by symptoms such as chills, high fever, rapid heartbeat, severe nausea, vomiting and confusion.[orasurgery.com]
Shivering
  • Symptoms Early signs of sepsis include : fever, shivering, or feeling cold fast heart rate fast breathing and shortness of breath sweaty or clammy skin changes in mental state, such as feeling sleepy, confused, or losing interest If medical attention[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • However, patients may have many other signs and symptoms that can occur with sepsis, such as elevated heart rate (tachycardia), fever, low body temperature ( hypothermia ), a reduced carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) level in the blood, chills, dizziness, fatigue, shivering[medicinenet.com]
  • […] patients may have many other signs and symptoms that can occur with sepsis, such as elevated heart rate ( tachycardia ), fever, low body temperature ( hypothermia ), a reduced carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) level in the blood, chills, dizziness, fatigue, shivering[rxlist.com]
  • Those against fever control argue that pharmacologic anti-pyresis with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or acetaminophen is potentially toxic [ 16, 17 ], and physical cooling may cause shivering which increases metabolic demand and patient discomfort[doi.org]
Tachypnea
  • Fever, chills, tachycardia (rapid heart beat), and tachypnea (rapid respirations) are common acute symptoms of septicemia. When hypotension ( low blood pressure ) and signs of inadequate organ perfusion develop, the condition is termed septic shock.[healthcentral.com]
  • SIRS• Two or more of the following conditions:– Fever or hypothermia– Tachypnea– Tachycardia– Leukocytosis or leukopenia or 10% bands• Infectious / Noninfectious6 7. Sepsis• SIRS with proven or suspected microbialetiology7 8.[slideshare.net]
  • By analyzing a large database of hospitalized patients, three clinical elements (hypotension, altered mentation, and tachypnea) were identified that could be used at the bedside to recognize those infected patients who are at risk of deteriorating or[doi.org]
  • Also, infants with tachypnea and respiratory distress cannot maintain a coordinated suck and swallow. Renal insufficiency may require adjustments in fluid and electrolyte administration.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • With sepsis, patients typically have fever, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and tachypnea; BP remains normal. Other signs of the causative infection may be present.[merckmanuals.com]
Vomiting
  • Abstract A previously healthy, 67-year-old, man with past medical history of myocardial infarction and hypertension was rushed to the emergency room after sudden onset of fever, chills, severe rigors, hypotension, tachycardia and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It also may progress into septicemia, a more serious blood infection that is always accompanied by symptoms such as chills, high fever, rapid heartbeat, severe nausea, vomiting and confusion.[orasurgery.com]
  • She had just returned from a visit out of the country when she developed nausea with vomiting and fever. On admission, the patient presented with fever and tachycardia and was placed on sepsis protocol.[icd10monitor.com]
  • Other common warning signs include: Fever and chills Very low body temperature Peeing less than normal Rapid pulse Rapid breathing Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Continued Sepsis Treatment If your doctor believes you might have sepsis, he’ll do an exam[webmd.com]
  • Nonspecific symptoms are common - eg, lethargy, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Also enquire about symptoms relating to a possible focus of infection - eg, cough, urinary symptoms, recent travel.[patient.info]
Intestinal Perforation
  • This report is of a patient who underwent surgery for intestinal perforations due to blunt abdominal trauma and developed unexpected CMY-2-producing E. coli septicemia in the early postoperative period.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypotension
  • Management of hypotension• Vasopressor therapy– Titrating dose of norepinephrine or dopamine– Dobutamine if myocardial dysfunction28 29.[slideshare.net]
  • Abstract A previously healthy, 67-year-old, man with past medical history of myocardial infarction and hypertension was rushed to the emergency room after sudden onset of fever, chills, severe rigors, hypotension, tachycardia and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When hypotension ( low blood pressure ) and signs of inadequate organ perfusion develop, the condition is termed septic shock.[healthcentral.com]
  • Heparin was given in all patients with hypotension suspected of having the defect. Most patients with septicemia and low blood pressure apparently have the defect.[nejm.org]
  • The patient later became hypotensive and coagulopathic and expired. For both patient cases, PCR identified high-risk pathogens faster than culture methods.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • Abstract A previously healthy, 67-year-old, man with past medical history of myocardial infarction and hypertension was rushed to the emergency room after sudden onset of fever, chills, severe rigors, hypotension, tachycardia and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On admission, the patient presented with fever and tachycardia and was placed on sepsis protocol. Workup showed leukocytosis and normal lactic acid. CT of abdomen demonstrated right pyelonephritis.[icd10monitor.com]
  • Fever, chills, tachycardia (rapid heart beat), and tachypnea (rapid respirations) are common acute symptoms of septicemia. When hypotension ( low blood pressure ) and signs of inadequate organ perfusion develop, the condition is termed septic shock.[healthcentral.com]
  • SIRS• Two or more of the following conditions:– Fever or hypothermia– Tachypnea– Tachycardia– Leukocytosis or leukopenia or 10% bands• Infectious / Noninfectious6 7. Sepsis• SIRS with proven or suspected microbialetiology7 8.[slideshare.net]
  • Finally, infected patients may have a qSOFA  2 and not be septic because the degree of hypotension, tachycardia, and/or altered mentation needed to fulfill qSOFA criteria is not the same as that needed to meet the SOFA organ dysfunction criteria necessary[doi.org]
Petechiae
  • Abstract Acute meningococcemia is characterized by extensive purpurae consisting of both petechiae and ecchymoses. This condition can be rapidly fatal without treatment due to shock and severe consumptive coagulopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Confusion
  • Symptoms include chills, high fever, and rapid breathing and heart rate, and it can progress quickly to confusion, altered mental state, and shock. Seeking early medical treatment for infections is key to preventing septicemia.[alabamapublichealth.gov]
  • Symptoms Early signs of sepsis include : fever, shivering, or feeling cold fast heart rate fast breathing and shortness of breath sweaty or clammy skin changes in mental state, such as feeling sleepy, confused, or losing interest If medical attention[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • It also may progress into septicemia, a more serious blood infection that is always accompanied by symptoms such as chills, high fever, rapid heartbeat, severe nausea, vomiting and confusion.[orasurgery.com]
  • The first signs may include rapid breathing and confusion.[webmd.com]
  • Rapid breathing (Tachypenea) Rapid heartbeat Changes in mental status such as confusion Low blood pressure Skin discoloration Dyspnea Thrombocytopenia Chills Pneumonia Urinary infection 11.[slideshare.net]
Lethargy
  • Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Physical problems may include lethargy, muscle weakness, breathlessness, chest pains, oedema, arthralgia, poor appetite, visual disturbance, sensory disturbance and recurrent infections.[patient.info]
  • Children may show signs of lethargy and decreased age-appropriate mental status. Neonatal sepsis (sepsis neonatorum) is suspected in neonates up to 28 days old if the rectal temperature is 100.4 F or higher.[medicinenet.com]
Altered Mental Status
  • Severe sepsis is diagnosed when the septic patient has organ dysfunction (for example, low or no urine flow, altered mental status).[medicinenet.com]
  • Altered mental status in this otherwise healthy adult with no comorbid conditions would also have indicated metabolic encephalopathy in severe sepsis.[icd10monitor.com]
  • mental status GCS Light sedation, early rehabilitation Blood coagulation system (DIC) Intravascular coagulation, microvascular damage, systemic thrombin generation, endothelial injury Bleeding diathesis, microthrombi and tissue ischemia Platelets 3 [doi.org]
Dizziness
  • Symptoms include a high fever, faintness and dizziness, and changes in consciousness. Without prompt treatment, septic shock can occur. This can be fatal. Antibiotics can treat many cases of sepsis effectively, but they need to be delivered fast.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Additional symptoms that may accompany the low blood pressure associated with septic shock may include cool and pale extremities, dizziness or lightheadedness, low or absent urine output, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, behavioral changes, and[medicinenet.com]

Workup

  • Workup showed leukocytosis and normal lactic acid. CT of abdomen demonstrated right pyelonephritis. Blood culture grew gram-negative bacteremia, identified as E. coli. She was started on IV hydration and Zosyn.[icd10monitor.com]
  • As examples, one respondent reported using a remarkably high temperature of 40 C or higher to define fever and one reported that fever never triggered a septic workup (Table 2 ).[doi.org]
  • “Lack of efficacy of the urine culture as part of the initial workup of suspected neonatal sepsis”. Pediatr Infect Dis J. vol. 11. 1992. pp. 764-6. Visser, VE, Hall, RT. “Urine culture in the evaluation of suspected neonatal sepsis”.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Although our study was not designed to test diagnostic or treatment algorithms, clinicians should consider further diagnostic workup for pneumonia in patients with culture-negative sepsis and suspicion of an infectious etiology.[dx.doi.org]

Treatment

  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss pharmacotherapy challenges encountered during treatment of a pediatric oncology patient with Burkholderia cepacia septicemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment should be individualized for each patient, but advice should include the option of prolonged conservative treatment to preserve limb length and function. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTRODUCTION: The choice of antimicrobial treatment for septicemia is often empirical and based on the knowledge of local anti-microbial activity patterns of the most common bacteria causing such bloodstream infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Seventy-five newborns who developed septicemia and received treatment in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects; also, 50 healthy newborns were set as a control group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Alteration of antifungal treatment to liposomal amphotericin B resolved the fever with favorable clinical response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sepsis (Blood Poisoning) Provides information on this dangerous medical condition, the causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention.[curlie.org]

Etiology

  • Abstract Escherichia coli remains one of the most common etiologies of secondary peritonitis. CMY-2 is the most prevalent AmpC enzyme identified in nosocomial E. coli isolates causing bacteremia in Taiwan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For the majority of cases of septicemia, no specific etiologic agent was indicated by ICD-9 codes in the record. The most commonly specified agents were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Detailed coagulation analyses in 36 pediatric cases of septicemia revealed 22 gram-negative and eight gram-positive infections, two Rocky Mountain spotted fevers, and four with no etiologic agent isolated.[nejm.org]
  • Pneumonia was the most common source, accounting for 55% of the final infectious etiologies in the culture-negative group.[dx.doi.org]
  • Invasive fungal infections are an increasingly frequent etiology of sepsis in critically ill patients causing substantial morbidity and mortality.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • KEYWORDS: antimicrobial resistance; bacteremia; bacteria; bacterial infections; disease transmission; infectious; livestock; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; molecular epidemiology; spa typing; staphylococci[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An epidemiological study of septicemia-related deaths were conducted at a level 1 Trauma Centre from January 2011 to December 2011. A total of 201 patients died due to suspected septicemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • .), the Research Group for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine (B.K.), and the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Taljaard: Associate Professor, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 1053 Carling Avenue, Civic Box 693, Admin Services Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4E9, Canada[doi.org]
  • Sepsis represents a substantial health care burden, and there is limited epidemiologic information about the demography of sepsis or about the temporal changes in its incidence and outcome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Furthermore, we review the recent advance in knowledge of sepsis pathophysiology, focusing on immune modulation, which may lead to new clinical therapeutic approach to sepsis.[doi.org]
  • These pathophysiologic changes play a central role in the management of sepsis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Every year, billions of dollars are consumed in the treatment of sepsis and in research to understand its complex pathophysiology and therefore obtain future therapeutic opportunities.[dx.doi.org]
  • Sepsis remains to be a significant health care issue associated with high mortality and healthcare cost, despite the extensive effort to better understand the pathophysiology of the sepsis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • This plan includes an analysis of the risks posed by the various pathways, or vectors, for transmission of the virus; a listing of known measures to prevent or contain the virus; an overall plan for the prevention of or response to the virus in the four[nps.gov]
  • PREVENTION : Treating wounds Treating infections Regular dental checkup 14.[slideshare.net]
  • Working together, we can prevent VHS from spreading.[dnr.wi.gov]
  • Septicemia or sepsis is a medical emergency and is often preventable. The elderly, young, and those with a weaker immune system are more at risk. Learn about who else is at risk, symptoms to recognize, and what to do.[qvitahealthandwellness.com]
  • Physicians must identify high IS-risk patients and control risk factors to prevent adverse events in the clinical setting. Copyright 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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Last updated: 2015-01-26 13:07