Serous otitis media is an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear, which occurs either from incomplete resolution of acute otitis media or from the obstruction of the eustachian tube from noninfectious causes. It is most commonly observed among children, and symptoms include hearing loss and a sense of fullness and pressure in the ear. Diagnosis is made through physical examination, and treatment is indicated only if the symptoms persists for months.
The clinical presentation of serous otitis media can be asymptomatic, and about 40-50% of documented cases report no symptoms. However, the most common clinical presentation of patients is hearing loss, and sometimes parents of children are the first to notice these changes. In addition to hearing loss, a sense of fullness and pressure is also reported by patients. Further, a popping sensation in the ear when swallowing is also observed.
Patient history is vital in the setting of serous otitis media, as most cases occur after an acute infection of the middle ear. In all patients who had a prior middle ear infection, the suspicion toward serous otitis media must be made, especially if symptoms last for a prolonged period of time.
The otoscopic examination is performed to evaluate the status of the tympanic membrane and the surrounding structures. During otoscopy, a grayish color of the tympanic membrane may be observed, displacement of the light reflex, and a certain degree of retraction. If a pneumatic otoscope is used, the tympanic membrane may be immobile.
Entire Body System
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: Noun 1. otitis - inflammation of the ear inflammation, redness, rubor - a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat otitis externa - inflammation [thefreedictionary.com]
The underlying pathology of CSOM is an ongoing cycle of inflammation, ulceration, infection and granulation. Acute infection of the middle ear causes irritation and inflammation of the mucosa of the middle ear with oedema. [patient.info]
What is Infectious Myringitis Inflammation of TM --> looks like otitis media Causes of Infectious Myringitis Viral, Mycoplasma, Strep Pneumo Tx for Infectious Myringitis Same as OM, Pain Meds, Can do Myringotomy to releive pain Bony spicules around foot [quizlet.com]
From these results it was inferred that inflammation of the epipharynx spread over the middle ear cavity through the auditory tube. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Allergy – Allergic reactions in the nose and throat result in mucous membrane swelling, and this swelling may also affect the eustachian tube. [netwellness.org]
This code is for the inflammation, redness or swelling of the middle ear. There are 4 codes under this category depending on the side of the ear that is affected . [ehealthhall.com]
Allergy Allergic reactions in the nose and throat result in mucous membrane swelling, and this swelling may also affect the eustachian tube. [pedja5.tripod.com]
Case 2 : An 8 year old Yoruba girl presented first to the eye clinic with 2 days history of swelling of the right eye, associated pain, reduction in vision and eyelid swelling without eye discharge or itch. [ajol.info]
Swelling, tenderness, pinna displaced, earache, fever, otorrhea clinically, CT- to determine bone erosion. 2nd Line Abx Drugs at least 2 weeks. (Augmentin, 3rd Gen Cephalosporins. [quizlet.com]
As opposed to acute otitis media, which is often accompanied by fever and pain, serous otitis media is often asymptomatic. [acronymfinder.com]
This condition may be asymptomatic as well. [symptoma.com]
[…] thought to be due to eustachian tube dysfunction Pathophysiology: : ETD causes negative middle ear pressure → triggers formation of transudate → dysfunctional eustachian tube prevents adequate drainage → accumulation of fluid Clinical features May be asymptomatic [amboss.com]
In otitis media with effusion, most cases are asymptomatic. When patients are symptomatic, the most common finding is mild conductive hearing loss. In chronic otitis media, the most common complaints are persistent otorrhea and hearing loss. [radiopaedia.org]
- Surgical Procedure
This surgical procedure involves making a small opening in the eardrum to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure from the middle ear. [chop.edu]
Surgical There is a paucity of up-to-date evidence of surgical procedures for CSOM [ 13 ]. [patient.info]
Surgery If the ear infection did not respond to the treatment or is recurring, a surgical procedure may be advised by the physician. [ehealthhall.com]
This surgical procedure, called myringotomy, involves making a small opening in the eardrum to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure from the middle ear. [hopkinsmedicine.org]
- Common Cold
Causes of Serous Otitis Media: • Upper respiratory tract infections, such as a common cold or flu • Allergic rhinitis • Irritants such as cigarette smoke • Rapid changes in air pressure, such as descending in an airplane Young children tend to be more [singaporedoc.com]
Cold 152 Rhinosinusitis in Recurrent Acute Otitis Media 158 Immune WorkupManagement for Recurrent Otitis Media 164 Immunoglobulins for Recurrent Acute Otitis Media 169 Otitis Media with Effusion 171 Antibiotics for Otitis Media with Effusion 175 Steroids [books.google.de]
Children cared for in group settings are more likely to get colds and ear infections than are children who stay home. The children in group settings are exposed to more infections, such as the common cold. Infant feeding. [mayoclinic.org]
November 23, 2009 Coding for Ear Infections For The Record Vol. 21 No. 22 P. 28 Otitis Media Otitis media is inflammation that occurs when fluid becomes trapped in the middle ear and is a typical result of a common cold, the flu, or another respiratory [fortherecordmag.com]
[…] illnesses or environmental conditions that children face that can make them more prone to developing serous otitis media including: Common cold Allergies Cigarette smoke Adenoids that are enlarged and block the auditory tube Attending daycare Symptoms [verywellhealth.com]
They may also present with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Children and infants may appear irritable due to the discomfort that they experience [1, 2]. [ehealthhall.com]
Antibiotic therapy for AOM is often associated with diarrhea.8,10,32 Probiotics and yogurts containing active cultures reduce the incidence of diarrhea and should be suggested for children receiving antibiotics for AOM.32 There is no compelling evidence [aafp.org]
Head and neck symptoms Children may show signs of earache or otalgia through the pulling of the affected ear. [ehealthhall.com]
Cysts of the nasopharynx may be asymptomatic, but if one enlarges or becomes inflamed, the patient may experience nasal obstruction, headaches, postnasal discharge with a foul odor, eustachian tube dysfunction with resulting otalgia, and serous otitis [acronymfinder.com]
In adolescents and adults, otalgia is a more common presenting symptom than in children under the age of 2. [ 1 ] Indeed, in adults, otalgia may occur without fever or hearing loss and may be the only presenting feature. [patient.info]
Fever was the most common presenting sign/symptom, observed in 8 patients, followed by otalgia, neck stiffness, headache, and confusion. An opaque and bulging tympanic membrane was observed in 8 patients. [entjournal.com]
Anatomy the middle ear is an aerated system, which includes the mastoid air cells, eustachian tube, and the nares respiratory mucosa lines this system Presentation Symptoms nonspecific findings fever irritability headache poor oral intake and nausea otalgia [step2.medbullets.com]
Learn More About Topic Tinnitus Over 50 million Americans have experienced tinnitus, or ringing in ears, which is the perception of sound without an external source being present. [entnet.org]
[…] recurrent upper respiratory tract infections or frequent nasal obstruction behavioural problems, particularly lack of concentration or attention, or being withdrawn poor educational progress less frequently, balance difficulties (for example, clumsiness), tinnitus [gpnotebook.com]
- Hearing Impairment
A disturbance in the inner ear fluid or nerve endings may result in a sensorineural (nerve) hearing impairment. This type of impairment is not correctable. [pedja5.tripod.com]
A disturbance in the inner ear fluids or nerve endings may result in a sensorineural hearing impairment. Most often this type of hearing impairment is due to a hair cell loss. This type of impairment is not correctable with surgery. [potomacaudiology.com]
Tympanic membrane perforations can heal spontaneously but can occasionally persist, leading to mild to moderate hearing impairment. [patient.info]
Symptoms Hearing impairment usually occurs. If it occurs in both ears at the same time, the patient usually has difficulty concentrating, poor learning ability, sitting close to the TV, or turning the TV loudly. [cmuh.org.tw]
Poorly controlled allergic rhinitis can lead to chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis and hearing impairment. [bmj.com]
- Ear Discharge
Case 1 : A fifteen year old Yoruba girl presented at the Accident and emergency of our hospital with a 2 week history of left sided ear ache, 10 day history of left sided ear discharge and 3 day history of jaw and neck stiffness. [ajol.info]
NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Cholesteatoma (Medical Encyclopedia) Ear discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Ear examination (Medical Encyclopedia) Ear infection - acute (Medical Encyclopedia) Ear infection - chronic [icdlist.com]
Discharge 258 Intravenous Antibiotics for Otorrhea 261 Evaluation and Treatment of Recurrent PostTympanostomy Otorrhea 266 Workup and Management of Chronic Otorrhea 271 MethicillinResistant Staphylococcus aureus Otorrhea 278 [books.google.de]
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media Chronic Suppurative OM is a result of an episode of an acute OM but is characterized by a persistent ear discharge due to the perforation of the tympanic membrane. [ehealthhall.com]
- Hearing Problem
One common symptom of OME is hearing problems. In younger children, behavior changes can be a symptom of hearing problems. For example, a child may turn the television up louder than usual. They may also tug or pull on their ears. [healthline.com]
[…] loss and is the most frequent cause of hearing problems in children hearing loss which is usually mild and fluctuating in severity can in some cases lead to impairments of speech, language, and cognitive development, but the magnitude of these effects [gpnotebook.com]
If your child isn't old enough to say "My ear hurts," here are a few things to look for Tugging at ears Crying more than usual Fluid draining from the ear Trouble sleeping Balance difficulties Hearing problems Your health care provider will diagnose an [icdlist.com]
Some common signs and symptoms of otitis media include an earache, tugging or pulling at the ear, a fever of 100 degrees or higher, irritability, restlessness, fussiness, and clear fluid in the ears. [fortherecordmag.com]
Younger children with otitis media are usually fussy and irritable and sometimes they have difficulty sleeping and eating. If they are old enough they may note difficulty hearing. Often there is ear pain and a feeling of pressure in the ear. [entcentergr.com]
Young children with ear infections may exhibit a number of symptoms, including: Tugging at the infected ear Crying or fussiness Complaining of pain or a plugged feeling in the ear High fever Headaches Balance problems Problems sleeping Difficulty hearing [medicalhearingsystems.com]
Young children with middle ear infections may be irritable, fussy, or have problems feeding or sleeping. Older children may complain about pain and fullness in the ear ( earache ). A child of any age may have a fever. [medicinenet.com]
Children Signs and symptoms common in children include: Ear pain, especially when lying down Tugging or pulling at an ear Trouble sleeping Crying more than usual Fussiness Trouble hearing or responding to sounds Loss of balance Fever of 100 F (38 C) or [mayoclinic.org]
Our study indicates that SOM in ALS seems to be mainly due to muscular disturbance of eustachian tube caused by ALS, although the influence of long term supine position and nasopharyngeal irritation by nasogastric feeding tube cannot be denied in the [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Common symptoms of acute otitis media are fever, pain, and irritability. Other symptoms can include difficulty sleeping, tugging on the ear, and loss of or decreased hearing. [chealth.canoe.com]
Ear infections can be very troublesome and irritable. A big number of people neglect health of their years and do not take care of it like other parts of the body. [onlymyhealth.com]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: Noun 1. otitis - inflammation of the ear inflammation, redness, rubor - a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat otitis externa - inflammation [thefreedictionary.com]
Average 4.5 of 11 Ratings Topic Images Snapshot A 9-month-old boy presents to your urgent care clinic for increased irritability. One week prior to presentation, the patient had an upper respiratory infection, which has since improved. [step2.medbullets.com]
ENT specialists treat conditions such as ear infection, hearing loss, dizziness, ringing in the ears (called tinnitus), ear, face, or neck pain, and more. [entnet.org]
Serous Otitis Media Symptoms: Itching and pain in the infected ear Loss of hearing Running a fever Throwing up Discharge of pus from the infected ear Feeling dizzy (sometimes) Serous Otitis Media Treatment : There are many ways that you can find relief [diethealthclub.com]
Hain, MD of Chicago Dizziness and Balance Page last modified: November 24, 2016 Definition of Otitis Media The term otitis media means that there is inflammation of the middle ear. [dizziness-and-balance.com]
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV, is the most common inner ear problem and cause of vertigo, or false sense of spinning. [entnet.org]
Fever, vertigo and otalgia should prompt urgent referral to exclude intratemporal or intracranial complications. Hearing loss is common in the affected ear. Ask about the impact of this on speech development, school or work. [patient.info]
Individuals may or may not suffer with symptoms to include: intermittent ear pain hearing loss speech delays balance problems delayed motor skills feeling of fullness in ears recurrent vertigo watery discharge Adults typically complain of aural fullness [saent.net]
Workup comprises a targeted physical examination, including an otoscopic examination of the ears, in order to determine the cause of hearing loss. Tympanometry may be performed to confirm the presence of fluid in the middle ear, and thus establishing the diagnosis of serous otitis media .
In addition to ear examination, the workup should include a full examination of the nasal cavity and pharynx, to exclude other causes that may be responsible for obstruction of the eustachian tube, such as hypertrophied adenoids, or malignant and benign tumors.
Serous otitis media resolves on its own in a period of two to three weeks, and no therapy is usually required. However, if the condition gains a chronic course, treatment is necessary and is primarily targeted to the underlying cause.
The middle ear can be temporarily ventilated with the Valsalva maneuver. The maneuver is performed by keeping the mouth fully closed and both nostrils pinched. The patient tries to blow the air forcibly through the nostrils, which will result in an air trying to reach the middle ear through the eustachian tube, and "ear popping" will occur as a result, leading to a temporary relief. Another maneuver is called politzerization, which requires the presence of a physician and includes blowing air with a middle ear inflator into one of the patient's nostrils while keeping the other nostril tightly closed. While the patient swallows, the air is forced into the eustachian tube and the middle ear. However, neither of these procedures should be performed if the patient is suffering from rhinorrhea or other respiratory infections.
If no improvement occurs after one to three months, myringotomy may be performed . Myringotomy comprises incision of the tympanic membrane, in order to relieve the pressure in the middle ear and drain the existing fluid, which can sometimes be performed by insertion of tympanostomy tubes , which aid in the process of drainage. Tympanostomy tubes may be also inserted for patients with a persistent conductive hearing loss, but also to prevent recurrent acute otitis media, which may cause further complications.
Patients who are suffering from allergies need to receive proper therapy including antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, which may be helpful in alleviating symptoms. Patients with hypertrophied adenoids and those with discovered tumors should be treated surgically. Antibiotics and decongestants are not effective therapeutic strategies , hence antibiotic therapy is given only if there is an evidence of additional bacterial rhinitis, sinusitis, or nasopharyngitis.
Serous otitis media generally has a good prognosis, and most episodes spontaneously resolve without treatment and need for intervention. However, this condition often goes undiagnosed, and chronic serous otitis media may cause permanent hearing loss. Moreover, it is considered to be the leading cause of a hearing loss in young children. In some children, even appropriate surgical therapeutic measures may not prevent the recurrence of serous otitis media, and it is estimated that about 20-50% of children will have a recurrence after spontaneous ventilation tube extrusion, which then requires placement of such tubes for years. Additionally, it is associated with delayed language development in children younger than 10 years. All of these factors implicate the potentially debilitating consequences of this condition and signify the importance of prompt diagnosis and proper therapy when necessary.
Serous otitis media may occur as a result of several conditions, the most common being an incomplete resolution of bacterial otitis media (most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae), which makes the middle ear susceptible to fluid accumulation and improper drainage. Secondary inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx, such as rhinitis, sinusitis, and pharyngitis may also be responsible for the development of this condition, through mechanical obstruction of the eustachian tube. Non-infectious causes, such as the presence of hypertrophic adenoids, lymphoid aggregations, but also malignant and benign tumors may be the causes as well, through the same mechanism. Allergic conditions, such as hay fever, in which swelling of mucous membranes could occur, may also cause obstruction of the eustachian tube. Congenital conditions, such as cleft palate , have also been implicated as causes of serous otitis media .
Serous otitis media is most commonly diagnosed in children , and it was estimated that about 90% of children had at least one episode of serous otitis media by four yeas of age . Additionally, the prevalence rate of serous otitis media decreases with age, being about 3-4% in children between six to eight years. However, this condition may be observed in any individual, regardless of age and gender.
Under physiological conditions, the eustachian tube serves as a ventilation mechanism, thus establishing the pressure equilibrium, and is the primary route for removal of secretions. The eustachian tube is still immature and underdeveloped in young children, which is why this condition is much more commonly observed among them .
When the functions of the eustachian tube are disrupted, as in the presence of acute otitis media, or mechanical obstruction from any causes, negative pressure inside the middle ear is created as a result of mucosal absorption of oxygen and other substances, which leads to the formation of a transudate fluid within the middle ear. This fluid (which is called serous because of its composition) accumulates in the middle ear, leading to obstruction of the hearing apparatus, thus causing symptoms of impaired hearing. If this fluid is not drained, or removed from the middle ear, it may cause permanent hearing loss. Initially, this fluid is sterile, but it is a favorable medium for bacterial growth.
It is mentioned that serous otitis media most commonly occurs after acute otitis media. In the setting of acute otitis media, the bacterial infection of the middle ear causes disruption of a regular function of the middle ear and creates favorable conditions for the development of serous otitis media. Newer theories suggest that some other factors are involved in the pathogenesis of serous otitis media, such as extraesophageal reflux, which brings into question other mechanisms that are involved in the development of this condition .
Factors which may aid in the prevention of serous otitis media:
- Pneumococcal vaccination - Since a large number of cases occur after acute otitis media, routine childhood vaccination against one of the main causes of acute otitis media, Streptococcus pneumoniae, may be certainly beneficial in reducing the number of cases.
- Environmental factors - avoiding cigarette smoke, allergens, and pollution have been suggested for patients with recurrent and chronic infections of the ear, because of their supposed effects on ear drainage. It is postulated that elimination of household smoking may reduce the incidence of serous otitis media while avoiding allergens reduces the symptoms of mucosal swelling, which may be beneficial for patients suffering from this condition.
- Hygiene measures - Regular hand washing and proper hygiene have been mentioned as strategies for reducing the risk of serous otitis media.
Prevention of consequences of serous otitis media can be achieved primarily through a timely diagnosis since the majority of cases reach chronic stage due to missed diagnosis.
Serous (or secretory) otitis media occurs due to insufficient drainage of fluid inside the middle ear, leading to fluid accumulation . It most commonly occurs after acute otitis media (most commonly caused by bacterial infection), or due to obstruction of the eustachian tube from noninfectious causes . It is one of the leading causes of deafness in children and is primarily encountered among young children. The course of illness may be asymptomatic, but symptoms are often present, including hearing loss, and a feeling of pressure and fullness in the affected ear. It is not uncommon that family members recognize a hearing loss of the patient first. The diagnosis of serous otitis media is made clinically and by performing otoscopy. Also, tympanometry may be performed to confirm the presence of the fluid in the middle ear. The clinical examination must comprise nasopharyngeal inspection, to exclude malignant or benign tumors as causes of eustachian tube obstruction. Treatment comprises supportive therapy in most cases, while myringotomy with tympanostomy may be indicated if the disease does not spontaneously regress within a few months. Underlying nasopharyngeal conditions which may cause this condition to be chronic should be managed, such as adenoidectomy, while antibiotic therapy is given only if the development of bacterial rhinitis, sinusitis and nasopharyngitis occur. Prognosis is good, the majority of cases resolve either with or without treatment, but about 5% of children who do not receive proper treatment for chronic serous otitis media experience permanent hearing loss.
Serous (or secretory) otitis media implies the presence of fluid in the middle ear, in which the key components of the hearing apparatus are located. This condition most commonly occurs after an acute infection of the middle ear (most commonly due to bacteria), or due to other causes that cause obstruction of the eustachian tube, which is responsible for normal ventilation of the middle ear. When the eustachian tube is obstructed, the negative pressure inside the middle ear causes the surrounding cells to create small amounts of fluid, which accumulate over time and cause hearing difficulties and may even cause hearing loss.
Apart from preceding otitis media, other causes include enlarged adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the throat), allergies, but also malignant and benign tumors that mechanically obstruct the eustachian tube.
Serous otitis media most commonly occurs in young children, which can be partly explained by the fact that the eustachian tube is not completely formed until three years of age, making children particularly prone to this condition.
The most common clinical presentation is hearing loss, which is often noticed by family members, while a sense of pressure or fullness is also commonly reported. This condition may be asymptomatic as well. A definite diagnosis is achieved through a detailed examination of the ear with an otoscope, with which the physician evaluates the status of the eardrum, and can indirectly assess the status of the middle ear. Other procedures may aid in the diagnosis, such as tympanometry.
Serous otitis media can spontaneously resolve without any therapy. However, if the condition becomes chronic, and remains untreated, it may lead to permanent hearing loss, and this condition is the most common cause of hearing loss among children, which is why this condition must be diagnosed promptly and treated properly.
The fluid that is chronically accumulated inside the middle ear needs to be drained, and it is performed through a procedure called myringotomy, which implies incision of the eardrum, and sometimes a placement of a tube that aids in draining the fluid from the middle ear. These tubes may often stay there for months, or sometimes even years, if necessary. Antibiotics and decongestants are not effective for treatment of this condition, and bacterial infection is not responsible for the accumulation of fluid, which is why antibiotics will not help.
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