Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Shaken Baby Syndrome

Abusive Head Trauma


Presentation

  • Descriptive statistics are presented for continuous variables, with frequency counts and percentages presented for categorical variables.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Patterns of presentation of the shaken baby syndrome: Four types of inflicted brain injury predominate". BMJ. 328 (7442): 766. doi : 10.1136/bmj.328.7442.766. PMC 381336. PMID 15044297. a b Booth, Robert (2016-03-11).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Presented as a poster at the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, January 28, 2011, Naples, Florida.[journals.lww.com]
Crying
  • Crying is how infants “talk” to us and is a natural part of being a baby. Two to three hours of crying a day is considered normal for a healthy baby.[cms-kids.com]
  • Crying is a normal form of communication in infants. Babies cry most between 2 and 4 months. Prolonged, inconsolable crying generally lessens when babies are around 5 months old.[sghs.org]
  • Crying does not mean that your baby is being bad, does not like you, or is angry with you. It is their primary means of communication. Sometimes babies just need to cry.[co.ontario.ny.us]
  • The media campaign allowed us to extend the primary prevention beyond new parents to help create a cultural change in the way crying, the primary trigger for SBS, is viewed.[journals.lww.com]
  • Shaken baby syndrome and a baby’s cry. Acta Paediatr. 2008; 97 :782–5. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 11.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epilepsy
  • […] degree of morbidity with 60% of survivors having a moderate or greater degree of disability. 11 The victims of SBS display a wide range of neurological sequelae. 26 These include cognitive and behavioral disturbances, cerebral palsy, blindness, and epilepsy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypoxemia
  • […] pressure in the brain's blood vessels. [57] The court reported that "the unified hypothesis [could] no longer be regarded as a credible or alternative cause of the triad of injuries": subdural haemorrhage, retinal bleeding and encephalopathy due to hypoxemia[en.wikipedia.org]
Falling
  • Studies found that minor falls ( 4 feet) do not cause serious injury in children, except for epidural haematoma whereas subdural and/or subarachnoid haemorrhage are seldom seen and retinal haemorrhage are virtually never seen in short falls. 2 Such findings[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic
  • "Intracranial hemorrhage in asymptomatic neonates: prevalence on MR images and relationship to obstetric and neonatal risk factors". Radiology. 242 (2): 535–41. doi : 10.1148/radiol.2422060133. PMID 17179400. Allen KA (2014).[en.wikipedia.org]
Pertussis
  • "Chapter 6 Evidence Concerning Pertussis Vaccines and Other Illnesses and Conditions -- Protracted Inconsolable Crying and Screaming". Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. The National Academies Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-309-04499-8.[en.wikipedia.org]
Failure to Thrive
  • […] to thrive; provided, however, that such inability is not due solely to inadequate economic resources or solely to the existence of a handicapping condition.[mass.gov]
  • […] to thrive, alterations in eating patterns, lethargy, vomiting, seizures, bulging or tense fontanels (the soft spots on a baby's head), increased size of the head, altered breathing, and dilated pupils. [10] Risk factors [ edit ] Caregivers that are at[en.wikipedia.org]
Fracture
  • […] from abusive head trauma in an infant 3D CT reconstruction showing a skull fracture in an infant 3D CT reconstruction showing a skull fracture in an infant Triad [ edit ] While the findings of AHT are complex and many, [23] they are often referred to[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Children with SBS are often found to have retinal haemorrhage. 2, 11, 14 Fractures of the ribs where the child is grasped, or long bone fractures when child is held, might also be detected.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Physical injury definition Death, fracture of a bone, subdural hematoma, burns, impairment of any organ, soft tissue swelling, skin bruising and any other such nontrivial injury depending upon such factors as the child’s age, circumstances under which[mass.gov]
Retinal Hemorrhage
  • hemorrhages. [13] The association between traumatic shaking, subdural hematoma and retinal hemorrhages was described in 1972 and referred to as whiplash shaken infant syndrome. [13] The injuries were believed to occur because shaking the child subjected[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Table 1 Table 2 Of the 364 children, 86% had subdural effusion, 42% had cerebral edema and 76% had retinal hemorrhages, of which 83% were bilateral ( Table 3 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Encephalopathy
  • The syndrome has classically been diagnosed with a triad of injuries, namely subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy (brain abnormalities).[papers.ssrn.com]
  • […] from shaking and injuries arising from shaking as well as trauma to the head. [33] SBS was previously believed to present with constellation of findings (often referred to as a " triad "): subdural hematoma ; retinal bleeding ; and brain swelling or encephalopathy[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Laboratory investigations are necessary in order to exclude other medical conditions such as rare metabolic diseases (glutaric aciduria), coagulation disorders, and infective encephalopathy. 24, 25 Other investigations should include a septic screen to[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • "Intracranial hemorrhage in asymptomatic neonates: prevalence on MR images and relationship to obstetric and neonatal risk factors". Radiology. 242 (2): 535–41. doi : 10.1148/radiol.2422060133. PMID 17179400. Allen KA (2014).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • In 98% of cases, an abnormality was reported: subdural hemorrhage/effusion (CT: 79% of scans, MRI: 87% of images), subarachnoid hemorrhage/effusion (CT 32%, MRI 23%) and/or intracranial hemorrhage (CT 63%, MRI 44%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Screaming
  • "Chapter 6 Evidence Concerning Pertussis Vaccines and Other Illnesses and Conditions -- Protracted Inconsolable Crying and Screaming". Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. The National Academies Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-309-04499-8.[en.wikipedia.org]
Behavior Problem
  • Shaking a baby can cause permanent brain damage, cerebral palsy, blindness, learning and behavior problems, seizures, paralysis, and even death. Shaken baby syndrome occurs most commonly with children younger than 1 year of age.[co.ontario.ny.us]
Stroke
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2014-02-14. Archived from the original on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2008-06-23. B.G.Brogdon, Tor Shwayder, Jamie Elifritz Child Abuse and its Mimics in Skin and Bone Levin AV (November 2010).[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • […] recommended if a concern is present. [1] While retinal bleeding is common, it can also occur in other conditions. [1] Abusive head trauma is a type of child abuse. [4] Educating new parents appears to be beneficial in decreasing rates of the condition. [1] Treatment[en.wikipedia.org]

Prognosis

  • [ edit ] Prognosis depends on severity and can range from total recovery to severe disability to death when the injury is severe. [12] One third of these patients die, one third survives with a major neurological condition, and only one third survives[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Outcome and prognosis of whiplash shaken infant syndrome: late consequences after a symptom free interval. Dev Med Child Neurol 1995;37:943-56. [ PubMed ][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of SBS, the triple-dose prevention program, and its evaluation.[journals.lww.com]
  • The most frequent neurological impairments are learning disabilities, seizure disorders, speech disabilities, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, and visual disorders. [28] Epidemiology [ edit ] Small children are at particularly high risk for the abuse that[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Animal models of shaken baby syndrome: Revisiting the pathophysiology of this devastating injury. Pediatr Rehabil. 2004; 7 :165–71. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 39. Cheng J, Howard IC, Rennison M.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • A triple-dose SBS prevention program was implemented with the aim to reduce the incidence of SBS. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of SBS, the triple-dose prevention program, and its evaluation.[journals.lww.com]
  • We’ll provide you with important information and support you can use to prevent risks to your child’s health and well-being, including shaken baby syndrome.[sghs.org]
  • Additional Resources: Prevent Child Abuse Florida www.ounce.org/shaken_baby_syndrome_resources Shaken Baby Alliance[cms-kids.com]
  • External links [ edit ] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Abusive head trauma[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Injury Prevention Get the facts about injuries and how to prevent them, at work or home, for any age. Health Promotion Learn to improve health at all life stages and about the risks of substance abuse, smoking and tobacco.[canada.ca]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!