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Shallow Breathing - Tidal Volume Decreased


Presentation

  • Somers Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers , 01.01.2006 - 243 Seiten In the face of the rapid developments in sleep medicine, this book seeks to present the current knowledge in the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment[books.google.de]
  • Four studies reported on weaning duration, however we were unable to combined the study data because of differences in how the studies presented their data .[cochrane.org]
  • Adequate chest rise is present with each ventilation, and the patient's oxygen saturation reads 96%.[quizlet.com]
  • Discussion The present study demonstrates that NHF may improve breathing patterns, decrease the work of breathing (RSBI), and decrease pCO 2 levels in patients with stable hypercapnic COPD.[dovepress.com]
Fatigue
  • (Fatigue inability of muscles to continue to develop the amount of tension generated before fatigue, no matter what the degree of stimulation) - thought that development of inspiratory muscle fatigue is of central pathophysiological importance in the[aic.cuhk.edu.hk]
  • Shallow breathing can be triggered by anxiety, stress, night sleep (or being in a horizontal position), fatigue, mouth breathing , and other factors that cause hyperventilation.[normalbreathing.com]
  • We have to make a clear distinction between muscle fatigue and muscle weakness. While fatigue is changing over rest, weakness is not.[shortnessofbreath.it]
  • The resulting increase in [H ] has a number of deleterious effects on exercise tolerance: impaired muscle contraction; perception of limb fatigue; and ‘shortness of breath’.[encyclopedia.com]
  • The slow-twitch fatigue-resistant muscle fibers in the infant are underdeveloped. The soft compliant chest wall provides little opposition to the deflating tendency of the lungs.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pain
  • Shallow respiration symptoms The symptoms of chest breathing are very individual and can range from dyspnea (or shortness of breath, which is common during terminal cancer, HIV-AIDS, cystic fibrosis, COPD, emphysema, and many other conditions) and angina pain[normalbreathing.com]
  • […] of ventilation due to: Increased circuit and airway resistance Decreased lung compliance Increased shunt and low V/Q areas, leading to hypoxia, due to: Atelectasis of dependent parts of the lung Impaired sputum clearance (cilia, atropine, sedation, pain[anaesthesia.med.usyd.edu.au]
  • The hypothalamus and other regions associated with the limbic system are involved in regulating respiration in response to emotions, pain, and temperature. For example, an increase in body temperature causes an increase in respiratory rate.[opentextbc.ca]
Hypoxemia
  • A mismatch between ventilation and perfusion is the most common cause of hypoxemia. When the V/Q ratio is less than 1 throughout the lung, arterial hypoxemia results.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Arterial oxygen tension is lower and chronic hypoxemia may lead to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. Subspecialty Related Media Keyword history 65%/2008 82%/2011 82%/2014 See Also: Obesity – PFT changes Sources PubMed[openanesthesia.org]
  • (Patients with low PaCO 2 may need artificial ventilation to help correct other problems, e.g. hypoxemia or severe alkalosis.)[lakesidepress.com]
  • C.) hypoxemia. D.) hypercarbia. D Intrapulmonary shunting occurs when... A.) the presence of pulmonary surfactant causes a decrease in alveolar surface tension, thus impairing the exchange of gases in the lungs.[memorize.com]
  • CPAP is indicated for the treatment of refractory hypoxemia. (c) B. PSV decreases the work of breathing while boosting spontaneous VT. (u) C.[brainscape.com]
Hypothermia
  • New chapters in this edition include hyperthermia and hypothermia syndromes; infection control in the ICU; and severe airflow obstruction. Sections have been reorganized and consolidated when appropriate to reinforce concepts.[books.google.de]
  • -hypovolemia -anemia -severe peripheral vasoconstriction (chronic hypoxia, smoking, or hypothermia) -time delay in detecting respiratory insufficiency -dark or metallic nail polish -dirty fingers -carbon monoxide poisoning causes of airway obstruction[quizlet.com]
  • "Alveolar dead space and arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide differences during hypothermia in dog and man" . J Appl Physiol . 10 (3): 349–55. PMID 13438782 . Gravenstein, J.S. (ed.), Jaffe, M.B. (ed.), Gravenstein, N. (ed.), Paulus, D.A.[en.wikipedia.org]
Fever
  • Irregular breathing patterns may also be caused by chronic illnesses (such as emphysema or asthma), fever, medication overdose, chest injuries, and hyperventilation. At the time of death, breathing patterns change.[emswebinfo.com]
  • Minute ventilation requirements increased by excess CO 2 production (eg excessive carbohydrate feeding, fever) and increased V D /V T (eg PE, hypovolaemia, shallower breathing) - management of these patients should be directed towards decreasing load[aic.cuhk.edu.hk]
  • Ibuprofen is used to treat fever. 3. False. Ketorolac is an NSAID that does not treat fever. 4. False. Celecoxib is used to treat arthritis pain and does not treat fever.[brainscape.com]
Hypoventilation
  • Humidification in SleepRelated Breathing Disorders 145 Oral Appliances in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring 151 Electrical Stimulation of the Upper Airways Muscles 160 Surgical Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea 167 Central Sleep Apnea Hypoventilation[books.google.de]
  • Ventilation-perfusion mismatch, intrapulmonary shunt, and hypoventilation The 3 most important abnormalities in gas exchange that lead to respiratory failure are V/Q mismatch, intrapulmonary shunt, and hypoventilation.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • During mild to moderate exercise, both VA and VCO 2 increase proportionately, so that PaCO 2 stays the same; the exercising person neither hyperventilates nor hypoventilates.[lakesidepress.com]
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration: Periodic breathing pattern characterized by alternating periods of hypoventilation and hyperventilation.[depts.washington.edu]
  • Reduction in the respiratory muscle function raises the respiratory load which eventually results is alveolar hypoventilation. Figure 1 Mechanisms of breathlessness, fatigue, and hypoventilation in patients with neuromuscular disorders.[shortnessofbreath.it]
Snoring
  • Upper Airway Muscles in Obstructive Respiratory Sleep Disorders 113 Automatic Positive Airway Pressure Titration and Treatment 137 Humidification in SleepRelated Breathing Disorders 145 Oral Appliances in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring[books.google.de]
  • Snoring and disturbed behaviour during sleep may also occur. sleep apnea Learn about sleep apnea.[britannica.com]
  • […] with respirations of 19 breaths/min and pink skin B.) a conscious female with facial cyanosis and rapid, shallow respirations C.) a conscious male with respirations of 18 breaths/min and reduced tidal volume D.) an unconscious 52-year-old female with snoring[memorize.com]
  • In addition, many individuals with sleep apnea experience a dry throat in the morning after waking from sleep, which may be due to excessive snoring. There are two types of sleep apnea: obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea.[opentextbc.ca]
Abnormal Breathing
  • ., scleroderma, collagen vascular disorders) Abnormal Breathing Patterns Obstructed breathing: In the presence of airway obstruction, the work of breathing is minimized by maintaining a slow rate and increased tidal volume.[depts.washington.edu]
  • Crackles are abnormal breath sounds that are produced with the presence of moisture or mucus in the small airways or by the opening of peripheral airways or collapsed alveoli. An adult patient is intubated after being pulseless for several minutes.[brainscape.com]
Tachypnea
  • The EMT should manage both conditions – tachypnea and bradypnea – by ventilating the patient with a bag-valve-mask device.[emswebinfo.com]
  • The patient has tachypnea and demonstrates accessory muscle use. Breath sounds reveal bilateral expiratory wheezes and SpO2 is 87%. A respiratory therapist should recommend a bronchodilator by A. MDI with a spacer.[brainscape.com]
Hyperpnea
  • In contrast, forced breathing , also known as hyperpnea, is a mode of breathing that can occur during exercise or actions that require the active manipulation of breathing, such as singing.[opentextbc.ca]
Heart Failure
  • Mechanical obstruction (foreign body, tumore) Obstructive sleep apnea Infection Upper respiratory infection Sinusitis Lower respiratory (bronchitis, pneumonia) Viral Atypical organisms Myobacteria Fungal Other Opportunistic Cardiac Ischemia Congestive heart[depts.washington.edu]
  • Similar swings in ventilation sometimes occur in persons with heart failure or with central nervous system disease.[britannica.com]
  • Nocturnal dyspnea and coarse crackles are indications of congestive heart failure. Hypertension can be an etiologic factor for heart failure.[brainscape.com]
  • However, some medical conditions, such as stroke and congestive heart failure, may cause damage to the pons or medulla oblongata.[opentextbc.ca]
Suggestibility
  • Recent reports have suggested that excessive sedation is associated with unnecessarily prolonged mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay.[rcjournal.com]
  • The changes in RSBI in both modes of ventilatory support suggest a similar improvement in the work of breathing in these patients. Interestingly, this is in spite of varying changes in ventilatory parameters among the devices.[dovepress.com]
  • Suggested readings Goldring, R.M., Heinemann, H.O., and Turino, G.M.: Regulation of alveolar ventilation in respiratory failure, Am. I. Med. Sci. 269:160, 1975.[lakesidepress.com]
  • Previous studies and systematic reviews suggest that a weaning protocol should be implemented in order to make daily assessments of patients who may be ready for weaning from mechanical ventilation .[cochrane.org]
  • […] ventilation or death shorten length of hospital stay optimal duration of treatment unknown GOLD report recommended 10 day course 8 week course not superior to 2 weeks 10 day course superior to 3 days b 2 agonists ipratropium bromide some but not all data suggests[aic.cuhk.edu.hk]
Impulsivity
  • […] oblongata’s functions Aortic body Monitors blood PCO 2 , PO 2 , and pH Carotid body Monitors blood PCO 2 , PO 2 , and pH Hypothalamus Monitors emotional state and body temperature Cortical areas of the brain Control voluntary breathing Proprioceptors Send impulses[opentextbc.ca]
Irritability
  • […] as well as inflammatory and immunological mediators within the airway Their function is to protect against the offending irritant, usually through expulsion Coughing is a protective reflex against irritants.[fastbleep.com]
  • Some of these receptors (called irritant receptors) are innervated by myelinated nerve fibres, others (the J receptors) by unmyelinated fibres. Stimulation of irritant receptors also causes coughing.[britannica.com]
  • Critical time of lack of oxygen 0-1min: cardiac irritability 0-4min: brain damage not likely 4-6min: brain damage possible 6-10min: brain damage very likely Over 10min: irreversible brain damage 12-20 breaths/min Adults 15-30 breaths/min children 25-50[quizlet.com]
  • Sleep apnea leads to poor sleep, which is reflected in the symptoms of fatigue, evening napping, irritability, memory problems, and morning headaches.[opentextbc.ca]
  • […] a reduction in partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) was demonstrated in addition to an improved 1 year mortality. 5 However, NIV via a face mask is not tolerated by every patient due to a variety of side effects, such as claustrophobia, skin rash, eye irritation[dovepress.com]
Stroke
  • As a refresher, cardiac output is comparable to minute ventilation, as it is a function of heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke volume , of course, is the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each contraction.[cmattoon.com]
  • However, some medical conditions, such as stroke and congestive heart failure, may cause damage to the pons or medulla oblongata.[opentextbc.ca]
  • A patient who had a stroke missed a bronchodilator treatment because he was in the physical therapy department. To assure that the patient receives future treatments, a respiratory therapist should A. coordinate the treatment schedules.[brainscape.com]
Headache
  • A 71-year-old male is semiconscious following a sudden, severe headache. There is vomitus on his face and his respirations are slow and shallow. The EMT must immediately: perform oropharyngeal suctioning.[quizlet.com]
  • Sleep study should be performed in the case of typical complaints such as headache, daytime sleepiness, nicturia, insomnia and changed cognitive function. 2.[shortnessofbreath.it]
  • Sleep apnea leads to poor sleep, which is reflected in the symptoms of fatigue, evening napping, irritability, memory problems, and morning headaches.[opentextbc.ca]
Excitement
  • The Hering-Breuer reflex is initiated by lung expansion, which excites stretch receptors in the airways.[britannica.com]
  • Feeling excited or the fight-or-flight response will also result in an increase in respiratory rate.[opentextbc.ca]
Morning Headache
  • Sleep apnea leads to poor sleep, which is reflected in the symptoms of fatigue, evening napping, irritability, memory problems, and morning headaches.[opentextbc.ca]

Workup

  • The ratio of dead-space to tidal-gas volume can be calculated on the basis of the difference between CO 2 in arterial blood and in exhaled gas (see Workup).[emedicine.medscape.com]
Hypercapnia
  • DANGERS OF HYPERCAPNIA The dangers from an elevated PaCO 2 are usually not from the excess carbon dioxide per se.[lakesidepress.com]
  • NIV has been shown to reduce pCO 2 . 3 For NHF, this has not yet been demonstrated in a similar manner, but initial reports indicate that NHF may also result in efficient reduction in hypercapnia. 18 The decrease in hypercapnia was also shown in a long[dovepress.com]
  • At the first signs of nocturnal hypercapnia, the patient should be offered NIV therapy rather than waiting until the hypercapnia extends into the daytime period.[shortnessofbreath.it]
  • Increased dead-space ventilation results in hypoxemia and hypercapnia. This increase can be caused by decreased pulmonary perfusion due to hypotension, pulmonary embolus, or alveolar overdistention during mechanical ventilation.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Respiratory failure can be further classified by whether or not hypercapnia (elevated levels of carbon dioxide) is present. These patients are severely ill and will likely die without intervention.[cmattoon.com]

Treatment

  • 145 Oral Appliances in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring 151 Electrical Stimulation of the Upper Airways Muscles 160 Surgical Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea 167 Central Sleep Apnea Hypoventilation Syndromes and Periodic 180 Cardiovascular[books.google.de]
  • Continue the treatment after adding 1 mL of saline to the nebulizer. C. Recommend administering cromolyn sodium (Intal) for the next treatment. D. Terminate the treatment and monitor the patient's heart rate. C: (u) A.[brainscape.com]
  • These should be considered when defining outcome measures in clinical trials and treatment strategies in DMD.[erj.ersjournals.com]
  • Explain how spirometry test results can be used to diagnose respiratory diseases or determine the effectiveness of disease treatment.[opentextbc.ca]
  • Shallow respiration treatment Since hyperventilation causes chest breathing, the solution is simple: normalization of breathing.[normalbreathing.com]

Prognosis

  • A cut-off of 5% which is used in some newer ventilators may circumvent this problem Prognosis 60-75% of patients with COPD and acute respiratory failure are successfully weaned however 1 year survival is only 32-50%.[aic.cuhk.edu.hk]

Etiology

  • Hypertension can be an etiologic factor for heart failure. Diuretics are useful in controlling water retention that can lead to fluid accumulation and narrowing in airways. (u) D. See explanation A.[brainscape.com]

Pathophysiology

  • Somers Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers , 01.01.2006 - 243 Seiten In the face of the rapid developments in sleep medicine, this book seeks to present the current knowledge in the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment[books.google.de]
  • Pathophysiology - primary pathophysiological change in lung mechanics is airflow obstruction leading to expiratory flow limitation.[aic.cuhk.edu.hk]
  • The weaning process begins after partial or complete resolution of the underlying pathophysiology precipitating respiratory failure and ends with weaning success (successful extubation in intubated patients or permanent withdrawal of ventilatory support[cochrane.org]

Prevention

  • When lung inflation is prevented, the reflex allows inspiratory time to be lengthened, helping to preserve tidal volume.[britannica.com]
  • Modern types heat both the water bath and patient hose to prevent rainout.[anaesthesia.med.usyd.edu.au]
  • Neither drug prevents accumulation of secretions. (c) C. Racemic epinephrine stimulates the alpha-receptors. (u) D. The desired effect is an alpha-response to prevent mucosal edema.[brainscape.com]
  • As a consequence, vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying this area occurs, reducing blood flow and therefore preventing wasted perfusion into poorly oxygenated alveoli Conversely, if alveolar PO2 is high, vasodilation will occur delivering more deoxygenated[fastbleep.com]
  • Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) workshop summary.[aic.cuhk.edu.hk]

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