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Shigella Enteritis

Shigellosis


Presentation

  • Between 5 and 10 August 2018, 45 participants presented with gastroenteritis symptoms, 14 of these tested positive for Shigella sonnei .[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • His educational activities include media presentations, extramural visiting professorships, and invited lectures at national and international meetings.[books.google.com]
  • Four cases, which developed while the infants were in the nursery, are presented in detail. Two of these infants died of peritonitis following intestinal perforation. Four Cases With Onset in the Hospital Nursery Case 1.[jamanetwork.com]
  • These patients may be considered to have thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) if fever and transient neurologic symptoms are also present. Seizures occur in approximately 10% of affected patients, and stroke or cerebral edema occur in 5%.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The bacteria are present in the feces of infected people. The period of sickness and a week or two after recovery are highly dangerous.[steadyhealth.com]
Fever
  • In August 2017, an outbreak of typhoid fever was reported during a European Rainbow Gathering in Italy . Shigellosis is a gastrointestinal bacterial infection.[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • Increased catabolism secondary to fever, stool protein loss, decreased intake owing to anorexia, and malabsorption can exacerbate preexisting malnutrition.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • High fever, abdominal cramps and diarrhea usually characterize shigella gastroenteritis. Interestingly, his wife did not develop Shigella gastroenteritis and no other contacts, either at home or in the dialysis facility, became ill.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Come a few hours later, you are running a fever. And then the next day, you had bloody bowels. You need to consult a doctor immediately because you may have been infected with Shigella.[learn2serve.com]
  • REGARDING DIAGNOSIS: Shigella sonnei infections are commonly characterised by intermediate diarrhoea and fever, following a short period of incubation. Only culture of the faeces permits the diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Reiter's Syndrome
  • Reiter’s syndrome. A review of current status and a hypothesis regarding its pathogenesis. Curr Probl Dermatol 5:157–179 PubMed Google Scholar 13. Piussan C, Pautard-Muchemble B, Pautard JC, Lenaerts C, Boudailliez B, Risbourg B (1984).[link.springer.com]
  • One could also ask, “Why isn’t Reiter’s syndrome called Reiter’s syndrome anymore?”[about-reactive-arthritis.com]
  • Reactive arthritis (also known as Reiter syndrome) may occur. Complications Complications from shigellosis may be intestinal or systemic. Intestinal complications Proctitis or rectal prolapse is common in infants and young children.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Occasionally, complications may develop, including bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), hemolytic uremic syndrome (a disorder characterized by kidney failure and anemia), and Reiter syndrome (painful urination, joint achiness).[healthychildren.org]
  • Other complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome after Campylobacter enteritis, Reiter’s syndrome (especially in persons who are HLA-B27 positive), Clostridium difficile colitis after antibiotic use, and postinfectious irritable bowel.[aafp.org]
Malaise
  • Nausea and/or vomiting, loss of appetite, headache or malaise can also occur. Clinicians should be aware of shigellosis as a potential diagnosis in persons who have returned from these gatherings and present symptoms compatible with the disease.[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • Along with the diarrhea there is sometimes pain, malaise and fever. DIAGNOSIS : Diagnosis is based on the finding of gull-shaped bacteria in watery, blood, leukocyte-filled feces.[atsu.edu]
Chills
  • The fever was low-grade, not associated with chills and rigor. There was no history of similar episode of illness in the past. On examination, the baby was irritable and had moderate pallor and signs of mild dehydration.[jlponline.org]
Diarrhea
  • People with diarrhea who are unable to take fluids by mouth because of nausea may need medical attention and intravenous fluids, especially small children.[pfusion.net]
  • Etiological and clinical characteristics of diarrhea in young adults, with special reference to Shigella gastroenteritis.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Medications that stop diarrhea are generally not given, because they can cause the infection to take longer to go away. Self-care measures to avoid dehydration include drinking electrolyte solutions to replace the fluids lost by diarrhea.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • Medicines that stop diarrhea are generally not given because they can cause the infection to take longer to go away. Self-care measures to avoid dehydration include drinking electrolyte solutions to replace the fluids lost by diarrhea.[medlineplus.gov]
  • NOS ( R19.7 ) functional diarrhea ( K59.1 ) infectious gastroenteritis and colitis NOS ( A09 ) neonatal diarrhea (noninfective) ( P78.3 ) psychogenic diarrhea ( F45.8 ) bacillary NOS A03.9 Infection, infected, infective (opportunistic) B99.9 ICD-10-CM[icd10data.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Symptoms include diarrhoea, which is sometimes bloody, abdominal pain and cramps, and fever. Nausea and/or vomiting, loss of appetite, headache or malaise can also occur.[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • Shigellosis - A microbe that is known to cause gastrointestinal problems like vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.In this article, you will find the basic info about Shigellosis, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection.[steadyhealth.com]
  • Symptoms include: Acute (sudden) abdominal pain or cramping Acute fever Blood, mucus, or pus in the stool Crampy rectal pain Nausea and vomiting Watery diarrhea Exams and Tests If you have symptoms of shigellosis, your health care provider will check[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • Symptoms include: Acute (sudden) abdominal pain or cramping Acute fever Blood, mucus, or pus in the stool Crampy rectal pain Nausea and vomiting Watery diarrhea If you have symptoms of shigellosis, your health care provider will check for: Dehydration[medlineplus.gov]
  • Symptoms of shigellosis typically start 1–2 days after exposure and include: Diarrhea (sometimes bloody) Fever Abdominal pain Tenesmus (a painful sensation of needing to pass stools when bowels are empty) Shigella germs are present in the feces (poop)[cdc.gov]
Food Poisoning
  • Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 107.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • Some of the common causes of food poisoning include Staphylococcal food poisoning (005.0); botulism food poisoning, including Clostridium botulinum (005.1); Clostridium perfringens (005.2); Salmonella gastroenteritis (003.0); bacterial food poisoning[fortherecordmag.com]
  • Reporting the food poisoning episode Any suspected case of food poisoning from eating takeaway or restaurant food should be reported to the local Environmental Health Office.[patient.info]
  • poisoning, bacterial gastroenteritis, radiation enteritis, staph aureus food poisoning, and campylobacter enteritis. 5) The treatment for enteritis depends upon the severity of the case.[ssdrc.com]
Tenesmus
  • Symptoms of shigellosis typically start 1–2 days after exposure and include: Diarrhea (sometimes bloody) Fever Abdominal pain Tenesmus (a painful sensation of needing to pass stools when bowels are empty) Shigella germs are present in the feces (poop)[cdc.gov]
  • Signs and Symptoms A Shigella infection can cause mild watery or loose stools with no other symptoms, or it can be more serious, with fever, abdominal cramps or tenderness, crampy rectal pain (tenesmus), and mucous-filled and sometimes bloody stools.[healthychildren.org]
  • Presentation: Shigellosis has two basic clinical presentations: (1) watery diarrhea associated with vomiting and mild to moderate dehydration, and (2) dysentery characterized by a small volume of bloody, mucoid stools, and abdominal pain (cramps and tenesmus[de.slideshare.net]
  • Tenesmus is present and the feces are bloody, mucoid and of small volume. Fluid and electrolyte loss may be quite significant, particularly in pediatric and geriatric populations. There may be a peripheral neurites and convulsions.[atsu.edu]
  • Passage of blood and mucus in stool associated with high-grade fever, tenesmus, and intestinal cramps are common symptoms.[jlponline.org]
Loss of Appetite
  • Nausea and/or vomiting, loss of appetite, headache or malaise can also occur. Clinicians should be aware of shigellosis as a potential diagnosis in persons who have returned from these gatherings and present symptoms compatible with the disease.[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • Enteritis can cause abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. Treatment usually involves drinking fluids to prevent dehydration. In rare cases, enteritis may be treated in a hospital with intravenous (IV) fluids.[kidshealth.org]
  • Symptoms may include: diarrhea nausea and vomiting loss of appetite abdominal cramps and pain pain, bleeding, or mucus-like discharge from the rectum fever There are several different types of enteritis: Infectious enteritis The most common type of bacterial[healthline.com]
  • SYMPTOMS : After an incubation period of 1-5 days, the disease begins with a prodromal episode of diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting and tenesmus; there may be vague abdominal discomfort, general malaise, loss of appetite, lose of weight and[atsu.edu]
Hypotension
  • […] chloroquine chronic coronary decrease depends depression diarrhoea diazepam digitalis digoxin dilatation disease diuretics dopamine dose doxycycline duration of action effect enzyme excretion fall in BP fluid GABA given Gram heart hepatic hypertension hypotension[books.google.com]
  • […] chronic coronary damage decrease depends depression diarrhoea diazepam digitalis dilatation disease diuretics dopamine dose doxycycline drug duration of action effect enzyme excretion fall in BP fluid furosemide GABA given Gram heart hepatic hypertension hypotension[books.google.de]
  • Endotoxic shock is characterized by blood pools forming in the microcirculation resulting in hypotension. Vital organs lack adequate blood supply, leading to decreased tissue perfusion, acidosis, ischemia, and cellular hypoxia.[de.slideshare.net]
Tachycardia
  • […] peripheral phenytoin plasma concentration platelet prevent produce prophylaxis protein quinolones receptors reduces reflex release renal resistance respiratory response Rifampicin sedation soluble stimulation sulfonamides sympathetic syndrome synthesis tachycardia[books.google.com]
Tachycardia
  • […] peripheral phenytoin plasma concentration platelet prevent produce prophylaxis protein quinolones receptors reduces reflex release renal resistance respiratory response Rifampicin sedation soluble stimulation sulfonamides sympathetic syndrome synthesis tachycardia[books.google.com]
Purpura
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Case 3-2019: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Headache, and Progressive Encephalopathy Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Randomized[nejm.org]
  • These patients may be considered to have thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) if fever and transient neurologic symptoms are also present. Seizures occur in approximately 10% of affected patients, and stroke or cerebral edema occur in 5%.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Headache
  • Nausea and/or vomiting, loss of appetite, headache or malaise can also occur. Clinicians should be aware of shigellosis as a potential diagnosis in persons who have returned from these gatherings and present symptoms compatible with the disease.[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • Go to the emergency room if these symptoms occur in a person with shigellosis: Confusion Headache with stiff neck Lethargy Seizures These symptoms are most common in children.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • Encephalopathy with lethargy, confusion, and headache has been noted in up to 40% of children hospitalized with Shigella infections. Reactive arthritis (also known as Reiter syndrome) may occur.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Case 3-2019: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Headache, and Progressive Encephalopathy Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Randomized[nejm.org]
Meningism
  • K1 is also associated with neonatal meningitis since it is antiphagocytic, anticomplementary, and resembles sialic acid. As a rule, K-antigen is responsible for type specifity.[de.slideshare.net]
  • : infection or foodborne intoxication due to any Salmonella species other than S. typhi and S. paratyphi A02.0 Salmonella enteritis Salmonellosis A02.1 Salmonella septicaemia A02.2 Localized salmonella infections Salmonella: · arthritis ( M01.3* ) · meningitis[apps.who.int]
  • Brain abscesses give rise to the symptoms of meningitis. DIAGNOSIS : The diagnosis of amebiasis is made by identifying E. histolytica in the feces or in tissues obtained from lesions.[atsu.edu]
Febrile Convulsions
  • We found the family history of febrile convulsion had significant association with convulsion.[pjms.com.pk]

Workup

Colitis
  • To Infectious colitis NOS Infectious enteritis NOS Infectious gastroenteritis NOS Type 1 Excludes colitis NOS ( K52.9 ) diarrhea NOS ( R19.7 ) enteritis NOS ( K52.9 ) gastroenteritis NOS ( K52.9 ) noninfective gastroenteritis and colitis, unspecified[icd10data.com]
  • The hallmarks of shigellosis are bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium and inflammatory colitis.[de.slideshare.net]
  • Seite 122 - ML (1983) Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. ‎[books.google.de]
  • Catarrh, enteric or intestinal Colitis Enteritis Gastroenteritis } } } NOS haemorrhagic septic Diarrhoea: · NOS · dysenteric · epidemic Infectious diarrhoeal disease NOS Excludes: due to bacterial, protozoal, viral and other specified infectious agents[apps.who.int]
  • This sometimes happens along with inflammation of the stomach ( gastritis ) and large intestine ( colitis ).[kidshealth.org]
HLA-B27
  • Approximately 70% of patients with post-shigellosis reactive arthritis are HLA-B27 positive. [28] Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a relatively uncommon disease; however, it is the most frequent cause of acute renal failure among infants and young children[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • It is thought that HLA-B27 may affect the elimination of the infecting bacteria or an individual’s immune response. [1] HLA-B27 has been shown to be a predisposing factor in one-half to over two-thirds of individuals with reactive arthritis. [8,1] While[about-reactive-arthritis.com]
  • Other complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome after Campylobacter enteritis, Reiter’s syndrome (especially in persons who are HLA-B27 positive), Clostridium difficile colitis after antibiotic use, and postinfectious irritable bowel.[aafp.org]

Treatment

  • THE EVOLUTION OF THE TREATMENT: Over the past years, strains of Shigella sonnei have become resistant to aminopenicillin and cotrimoxazole (treatment recommended till now) and now predominate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • This is because taking the wrong treatment may worsen your symptoms.[steadyhealth.com]
  • Control of case Treatment is usually supportive for mild illness. Anti-motility drugs are thought to increase the risk of prolonged carriage.[ideas.health.vic.gov.au]
  • Antex is currently developing vaccines based on its NST technology for the prevention and treatment of Campylobacter jejuni and Shigella gastroenteritis and diarrhea; and Helicobacter pylori for gastritis and peptic ulcers.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Prognosis

  • Outlook (Prognosis) The infection is often mild and goes away on its own. Most patients, except malnourished children and those with weakened immune systems, recover fully.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • What Is the Prognosis? In most cases, Shigella infections run their course in 2 to 3 days.[healthychildren.org]
  • This includes whatever statements and treatment notes that may have been obtained from your treating physician (a doctor who has a history of treating your condition and is, therefore, qualified to comment as to your condition and prognosis).[ssdrc.com]

Etiology

  • Etiological and clinical characteristics of diarrhea in young adults, with special reference to Shigella gastroenteritis.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Shigellosis is an acute infection with onset of symptoms usually occurring within 24-48 hours of ingestion of the etiologic agent.[de.slideshare.net]
  • MM 237-240, 619-621; ID 736-741, 747-752, 763-768, 721-723 SHIGELLOSIS ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS : Fifty Shigella species which fall into one of four serological groups.[atsu.edu]
  • Etiology of diarrhea among travelers and foreign residents in Nepal. JAMA. 1988;260:1245–8. 15. Kuschner RA, Trofa AF, Thomas RJ, Hoge CW, Pitarangsi C, Amato S, et al.[aafp.org]
  • Although electrolyte imbalance is a known etiology for convulsion during gastroenteritis, in this study, the comparison of the two groups demonstrated no significant relation between electrolyte imbalances and the incidence of convulsion statistically[pjms.com.pk]

Epidemiology

  • As a consequence, little is known about the clinical manifestations and epidemiologic implications of shigellosis in this age group.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Div of Field Svcs, Epidemiology Program Office; Enteric Diseases Br, Div of Bacterial Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.[cdc.gov]
  • Epidemiology and pathogenesis of diarrhea caused by E.coli. 5. Laboratory diagnostics of the coli-enteritis. 6. Cultural method 7. Prevention and control of the diarrhea provoked E.coli. 8. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of bacterial dysentery.[de.slideshare.net]
  • ISSN: 0950-2688 EISSN: 1469-4409 URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection Unfortunately you do not have access to this content, please use the Get access link below for information on how to access this content.[cambridge.org]
  • Página 186 - Shapiro RL, Hatheway C, Swerdlow DL: Botulism in the United States: a clinical and epidemiologic review. Ann Intern Med 1998;129:221-228. ‎ Página 186 - Simpson LL. The origin, structure, and pharmacological activity of botulinum toxin.[books.google.es]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea: pathophysiology, frequency and guideline-based management. Ther Adv Med Oncol . 2010 Jan; 2(1): 51–63. Available online at . Accessed March 2016.[labtestsonline.it]

Prevention

  • Prevention Prevention includes properly handling, storing, and preparing food, and good personal hygiene. Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent shigellosis. Avoid food and water that may be contaminated. visHeader References DuPont HL.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • Prevention includes properly handling, storing, and preparing food, and good personal hygiene. Handwashing is the most effective way to prevent shigellosis. Avoid food and water that may be contaminated.[medlineplus.gov]
  • The infected person should stay at home until the diarrhoea has stopped, to prevent infecting others at work, school, kindergarten or childcare.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • Antex is currently developing vaccines based on its NST technology for the prevention and treatment of Campylobacter jejuni and Shigella gastroenteritis and diarrhea; and Helicobacter pylori for gastritis and peptic ulcers.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • They essentially help in hastening recovery and preventing the spread of the infection. Some strains, however, have developed resistance to certain medications.[learn2serve.com]

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