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Shigella Flexneri

Shigella Flexneri Castellani and Chalmers 1919


Presentation

  • It is often assumed that LC3 is recruited around bacteria present in the cytoplasm through the formation of canonical double-membrane autophagosomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case report is presented in whom recurrent urinary tract infection was due to Shigella Flexneri and was treated effectively with antibiotics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a rare case of Shigella flexneri bacteraemia and toxic megacolon, and discuss the challenges of conventional laboratory techniques versus molecular PCR platforms in differentiating between Shigella species and Escherichia coli.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Septic shock is a very unusual presentation of Shigella infection. We describe a 3-y-old child who developed severe septic shock and severe encephalopathy during an episode of dysentery caused by Shigella flexneri.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Diarrhea
  • On September 30, her brother, aged 6 years, was hospitalized with vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and hyponatremia. Three days later, her father was hospitalized with vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and hyponatremia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Shigella flexneri 2a was isolated from a patient with Reiter's syndrome (RS) following a family outbreak of traveler's diarrhea. Among 3 members at risk, only the patient was positive for HLA-B27.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case illustrates that Shigella should be included in the differential diagnosis of sepsis associated with diarrhea particularly in young infants traveling to or living in an endemic area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Shigella sp. is known to be an important cause of diarrhea in homosexual men, although chronic infection is infrequently recognized.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antibiotic treatment of dysentery aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration, and to prevent transmission to other close contacts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • In March 2017, a 45-year-old Italian man who has sex with men was admitted to the Infectious Diseases Department of Trieste Hospital (northeast Italy), because of fever, abdominal pain and dysentery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This causes shigellosis with (mucous and bloody) diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain.[abcam.com]
Nausea
  • If you have extreme nausea and vomiting, you may need intravenous fluids and medication. Most people have no lasting ill effects from shigellosis.[healthline.com]
  • If you have diarrhea and cannot drink fluids by mouth because of severe nausea, you may need medical care and intravenous (IV) fluids. This is more common in small children who have shigellosis.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Shigella infections can cause stomach cramps, nausea and diarrhoea, and worryingly it is also increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Read on for five more Shigella facts that you may not know… 1.[biocote.com]
  • The shigella bacteria are very similar to the campylobacter, E coli and salmonella bacteria in that they all cause a form of food poisoning which is characterised by nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.[medic8.com]
Acute Abdomen
  • We report an unusual and lethal case of Shigella flexneri septicemia in an 8-year-old Saudi handicapped child from a social home presenting with severe toxic megacolon and acute abdomen secondary to fulminant necrotizing enterocolitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypertension
  • He was a diabetic and hypertensive for the past 15 years. On examination, he was drowsy, with a nystagmus on looking to the left side and absent gag. He had mild incoordination in the left upper and lower limbs.[ijpmonline.org]
  • […] consent process) to not become pregnant nor to breastfeed during the study or within 3 months following last vaccination Exclusion Criteria: Health problems (for example, chronic medical conditions such as psychiatric conditions, diabetes mellitus, hypertension[clinicaltrials.gov]
Conjunctival Hyperemia
  • hyperemia, “ ” for lacrimation or eyelid edema with mild conjunctival hyperemia plus slight exudates, and “ ” for full-blown purulent keratoconjunctivitis.[doi.org]
Suggestibility
  • Furthermore, all patients who reported foreign travel had recently been to Hispañiola, suggesting that emergence of these novel strains is associated with that region.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This suggested that the plaque defect of the eda mutant was due to buildup of the toxic intermediate 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconic acid rather than a specific requirement for this pathway.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These findings suggest that JNK-MAPK is not the sole pathway that enhances the immunity of the host. Nonetheless, the IIS pathway bridges the JNK-MAPK pathway that influences in protecting the host in counter to the M9OT infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This suggested that fermentation and the CydAB system primarily sustain energy generation intracellularly. Elevated levels of PntAB, which is responsible for NADPH regeneration, suggested a shortage of reducing factors for ATP synthesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • S. flexneri-mediated disruption of host iron homeostasis. cct-2 and daf-19 RNAi worms were more susceptible to infection, suggesting that these genes are induced as a protective mechanism by C. elegans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Foul Smelling Vaginal Discharge
  • The child was symptomatic with intermittent vaginal bleeding, dysuria and foul smelling vaginal discharge for a 3-year period.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neglect
  • Nevertheless, gene expression studies of infected cells commonly average the immune responses, neglecting the precise pathogen localization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Colitis
  • The 19-year-old male patient who presented with fulminating haemorrhagic colitis died nine days after the onset of symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of the present study is to report a case of severe course of colitis with severe complications caused by Shi-gella fexneri in 10-year old girl.[medicalproblems.eu]
  • Advertisement Colon non tumor Infectious colitis (specific microorganisms) Shigella of colon Topic Completed: 01 January 2016 Revised: 10 January 2017, last major update January 2016 Copyright: (c) 2003-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • This is in opposition to the diarrheal symptoms seen in patients suffering from extensive Shigella colitis, and the pathologic basis for this is unknown.[textbookofbacteriology.net]
  • Infections with Shiga toxin-producing bacteria are known to cause bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis).[certest.es]

Treatment

  • The aims of this investigation were to; (i) study the effect of X-ray treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri on whole mangoes, and (ii) study the effect of X-ray treatments on[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although antibiotics are considered as efficient agents for shigellosis treatment, improper use of these has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Shigella spp. Therefore, finding a new strategy as alternative treatment seems necessary.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antibiotic treatment of dysentery aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration, and to prevent transmission to other close contacts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Consequently, treatment with Ibrutinib, a specific Btk inhibitor currently used in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, effectively impaired S. flexneri spread from cell to cell.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although prognosis after local treatment is good, shigellosis is a systemic infection, possibly leading to dehydration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Although prognosis after local treatment is good, shigellosis is a systemic infection, possibly leading to dehydration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Shigella flexneri, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the human colonic epithelium and causes its massive inflammatory destruction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Shigella flexneri is an important etiological agent of bacillary dysentery in developing countries. The Hfq protein is thought to play a major regulatory role in various cellular processes in this organism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Shigella was recognized as the etiologic agent for bacillary dysentery in the 1890's, and adopted as a genus in the 1950's and subgrouped into four species.[uniprot.org]
  • In order to improve genome annotation, we aimed to identify novel sRNAs and sORFs in Shigella, the principal etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Descriptive Epidemiology 587 Mechanisms and Routes of Transmission 7 Pathogenesis and Immunity 590 Patterns of Host Response 591 Control and Prevention 592 References 593 Suggested Reading 595 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Theodore E Woodward and J Stephen[books.google.de]
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide the epidemiology, resistance pattern, and characterization of integrons in Shigella flexneri isolated between 2001 and 2011 in Jiangsu Province.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An epidemiological investigation was conducted and the children and nursing workers in SCWI were surveyed for gastrointestinal symptoms; 28 of children reported having a diarrheal illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: Demographic data were collected in 2000-2010 for epidemiological investigation. Thirty-eight Shigella flexneri 2a isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: E. coli; Shigella; dysentery; epidemiology; genomics; global health; infectious disease; microbiology; pathogen evolution[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Sites Disease occurs primarily in the left colon and involvement of the terminal ileum is common Disease may occur in other parts of the large bowel Very rarely, fulminant disease occurs because of massive small intestinal invasion (Ikari syndrome) Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • References Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal infections: the role of bismuth subsalicylate. Scottsdale, Arizona, 11-14 February 1988. Proceedings. Rev Infect Dis. 1990;12 Suppl 1:S1-119. Steffen R.[cdc.gov]

Prevention

  • Prevention, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. 4 State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China. 4 Henan Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou 450016, China. 5 Health Bureau, Logistics Support Department of Central Military Commission, Chinese PLA, Beijing 100038, China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 20 Dong-Da-Jie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071, China. 2 Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We found that S. flexneri infection inhibits movement of the stress granule markers eIF3 and eIF4B into stress granules and prevents the aggregation of G3BP1 and eIF4G-containing stress granules.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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