Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is an adolescent hip disorder that is characterized by slippage of the femoral epiphysis through the epiphyseal plate. Most cases are idiopathic but there are associated risk factors. Once discovered, emergent surgery is necessary to prevent complications.
The clinical picture is sometimes confusing since the anatomical abnormality does not always reflect the location of the pain, which is observed in the groin, thigh, or knee. The latter is the most frequently affected site. In fact, most patients with SCFE are teenagers with knee or hip pain  who subsequently exhibit an intermittent limping gait. On presentation, the pain is of several weeks duration. Also, in the majority of cases, there is a minor trauma that highlights the limp and the pain.
On physical exam, there is a limited range of motion of the hip. The abnormal hip joint causes patients to walk with foot and hip facing outward. When evaluating the patient, SCFE is classified according to whether it is acute or chronic, stable versus unstable in terms of ability to bear weight on it, and radiographic findings.
Unstable acute SCFE will present with severe pain to the extent that patients cannot bear weight on leg. This is more common after trauma. MRI is helpful to diagnose this . Furthermore, unstable patients tend to develop complications.
An atypical patients exceed the usual age range. More specifically, the ages are younger than 10 years old or older than 16 years of age. Also physical characteristics such as short stature are considered atypical.
- Shortly after the onset of SCFE symptoms, chondrolysis may develop . This consequently develops a stiff and painful hip regardless of whether surgery is performed.
- Another complication, avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis  occurs when SCFE progresses rapidly and blood vessels become damaged. This results in the degeneration and deformity of the epiphysis and hence the development of arthritis.
- Common presentations with older ages of SCFE patients include arthritis, and more specifically, osteoarthritis of the hips.
Entire Body System
Periodic radiographic observations showed no progression of the collapse, and bone remodelling of the necrotic femoral head. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Avascular necrosis, present in 30 percent of acute slips, is caused by loss of blood supply and may result in collapse of the femoral head. Chondrolysis, disintegration of the cartilage surface, leads to stiffness and pain. [parkviewortho.com]
Multiple factors have been involved in slipped capital femoral epiphysis pathogenesis, but we believe an osteoarticular tuberculosis lesion is not a common finding as a possible etiological factor causing weakness of the growth plate and, therefore, the [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
He denied any tingling, numbness, or weakness distally. He had been complaining of pain in his right hip for the past two weeks, but he did not seek medical attention for this. [dontforgetthebubbles.com]
In SCFE, a weakness of the growth plate (physis, the area at the end of the bone responsible for bone growth) in the upper end of the thigh bone (femur) causes the head, or "ball," of the thigh bone (femoral head, epiphysis) to slip off the neck of the [childrenshospital.org]
This is caused due to weakness of the growth plate. This condition is commonly caused during accelerated growth periods such as the onset of puberty. Causes The cause of SCFE is unknown. [newwestsportsmedicine.com]
In a child with a unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the treatment of the radiographically normal, asymptomatic contralateral hip remains controversial. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Difficulty Walking
Difficulty walking. Hip, groin or knee pain. Inability to bear weight on the affected leg. An affected leg that turns inward, turns outward or appears shorter. Decreased range of motion. Joint stiffness. [gillettechildrens.org]
Symptoms associated with SCFE include: Limping Pain in the leg, hip, knee, or groin Difficulty walking Decreased range of motion (hip and leg movement) Overall loss of function (in more severe cases) The most common symptom of SCFE is limping. [moveforwardpt.com]
Symptoms The most common symptom of SCFE will be a pain in the affected hip which will often result in difficulty walking. [runnerclick.com]
Patients outside of this range and those within this range that are underweight should be considered atypical and evaluation for endocrine or renal disorders should be considered. [clinicalpainadvisor.com]
Children with overweight and obesity were diagnosed 1 year earlier than children with normal weight or underweight ( P < .002; Fig 2 ). [doi.org]
[…] include hypothyroidism, growth hormone supplementation, hypogonadism, and panhypopituitarism. 2 An endocrine disorder should be considered in SCFE with unusual presentations, including patients who are younger than eight years, older than 15 years, or underweight [aafp.org]
In the patient with unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis, urgent hip joint aspiration followed by closed reduction and single- or doublescrew fixation provides the best environment for a satisfactory result, while minimizing the risk of complications [journals.lww.com]
[…] lateral) Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease 4 to 9 Vague hip pain, decreased internal rotation of hip Infrequently Hip radiography or magnetic resonance imaging Septic arthritis All ages Fever, limping, hip pain Infrequently Radiography; laboratory testing; joint aspiration [aafp.org]
[…] articular cartilage 2) Autoimmune - Produce an antigen 3) Metallic implant penetration 4) Impingement - labrum and acetabulum by anterior “pistol grip” deformity of the femoral neck 65. 1)CT of the hip to confirm that no implant encroachment is present. 2) Aspiration [slideshare.net]
Other specific surgical treatment methods registered were open reduction and internal fixation according to Parsch [ 42 ] and whether joint aspiration [ 43, 44 ] was performed for unstable SCFE. [bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomedcentral.com]
[…] a strong clinical suspicion of congenital hypothyroidism, initiate replacement therapy to achieve euthyroidism until the child is 1-2 years of age.d During the first 2 weeks of therapy, closely monitor infants for cardiac overload, arrhythmias, and aspiration [gearsteroids.buy.bushorchimp.com]
- Knee Pain
When patients who are thin present with knee pain, it can be easy to overlook the possibility of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Although 80% of patients with a "slip" are obese, thin children are not immune to this problem. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
"Slipped capital femoral epiphysis" HISTORY/PE ■ Typically presents with acute or insidious thigh or knee pain and a painful limp. ■ Acute cases present with restricted ROM and, commonly, inability to bear weight. ■ Bilateral in 40-50% of cases. ■ Characterized [quizlet.com]
Predetermined symptom codes were categorised as ‘hip pain’, ‘knee pain’ and ‘altered gait’ and ‘miscellaneous leg pain’ (see online supplementary appendix 1 ). [doi.org]
The patient admits to vague right-sided hip and knee pain present only with activity. He says the pain has never awakened him from sleep and is never present at rest. [fprmed.com]
- Hip Pain
Patients with femoroacetabular impingement experience reduced hip range of motion as well as hip pain, and they are at risk of early-onset hip osteoarthritis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Ultrasound Ultrasound may be performed in the assessment of hip pain. However, it should not be used as a replacement for a pelvic radiograph. Findings are nonspecific and may include hip joint effusion. [radiopaedia.org]
Activity-related hip pain Often History of overuse; radiography to rule out fractures Transient synovitis < 10 Limping or hip pain Often Radiography; laboratory testing; ultrasonography Fracture All ages Pain after traumatic event Occasionally History [aafp.org]
- Thigh Pain
Pain in the affected hip, thigh, or knee Limp Hip pain may be absent. Referred pain to the thigh or knee and/or limp may be the only presenting symptoms. Occasional history of trau... [5minuteconsult.com]
Up to 15% of patients present with knee or thigh pain, and the true problem (hip) may be missed until slippage worsens. Early hip examination may detect neither pain nor limitation of movement. [msdmanuals.com]
A limp, hip pain, knee pain, or thigh pain might be a symptom of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in patients with TS, especially those receiving growth hormone therapy. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
but it may cause pain in only the thigh or knee, because the pain may be referred along the distribution of the obturator nerve. [en.wikipedia.org]
- Coxa Vara
Reports on cases of femoral neck fracture complicated by a slipped capital femoral epiphysis associated with avascular necrosis and coxa vara deformity in children are extremely rare. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Vara, Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses, Coxa Varas, Adolescent, Coxa Vara, Adolescent, Adolescent Coxa Varas, Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis, Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses [Disease/Finding], Slipped Femoral Capital Epiphyses, Epiphysiolysis Capitis [fpnotebook.com]
- Limping Gait
Frequently, a vague history of antecedent trauma calls attention to the limp and pain. As the epiphysis continues to slip, there may be decreased range of motion and a limping gait. [massgeneral.org]
In fact, most patients with SCFE are teenagers with knee or hip pain who subsequently exhibit an intermittent limping gait. On presentation, the pain is of several weeks duration. [symptoma.com]
In acute on chronic phase, patient presents with pain, limp, and altered gait occurring for several months, suddenly becoming very painful. [mjdrdypu.org]
- Kidney Failure
In addition to examination of the hip, patients should be evaluated for signs of endocrine disorders including marked obesity, hypogonadism, and signs of kidney failure. [parkviewortho.com]
Children with kidney failure, thyroid problems or growth hormone abnormalities. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis at Seattle Children’s Your child will see caregivers who are part of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. [seattlechildrens.org]
Three patients with five SCFEs had endocrine disorders (all three had kidney failure). In 32 patients no information could be found on severity of the slip at the time of presentation. This left 101 patients (130 hips) for our study cohort. [link.springer.com]
Kidney Failure: The kidneys are primarily responsible for maintaining a proper level of minerals and hormones in the body. [runnerclick.com]
A thorough history and physical exam are necessary. Pain of the knee or hip in children or teenagers with no obvious cause should elevate suspicion for SCFE. Therefore these components along with pelvic radiographs are necessary for accurate diagnosis. X-rays depict the epiphyseal slip .
Physical findings include limited range of hip movement and external rotation of leg with hip flexion. Functionality of hip joints is correlated to the amount of epiphyseal slips. Greater difficulty is expected with pronounced slips.
Laboratory studies are not indicated to perform routine endocrine screening on SCFE patients. However, in patients with atypical presentations or manifestations suggestive of endocrine abnormalities, appropriate laboratory studies are indicated. Possible disorders include hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, pituitary tumors, renal osteodystrophy and others as well.
Specific lines are drawn on anteroposterior and frog-lateral X-ray views of pelvis and hips to determine anatomical abnormality. These provide critical findings indicative of SCFE. There are three types describing the level of slippage. Type I is associated with less than 33% displacement of head off the femoral neck, type II with 33-50% displacement, while type III is greater than 50% displacement.
In addition, X-rays will demonstrate any abnormalities of femoral neck and head that resulted from the modified mechanics of SCFE. Furthermore, preexisting medical conditions may be detected as well. The radiograph is the test of choice. Other modes of imaging such as bone scans, MRI , and CT scans can provide information on the percentage of slippage and blood supply to the epiphyseal plate. Experts advocate for the utilization of MRI in SCFE patients since it may detect certain features such as joint effusion and synovitis that a radiograph may not demonstrate . It is thought that MRI can provide insight during the planning of surgical intervention .
The treatment of SCFE is surgery, which is crucial. It considered to be emergent and should be conducted soon after diagnosis. The surgical procedure consists of internal in situ fixation of the epiphysis with one cannulated screw. This fixation will stabilize and avoid further slippage . In some cases, it may be advisable to prophylactically perform the fixation on the contralateral hip . This will depend on the individual and the risk factors present. In cases with severe deformity, further surgical intervention may be necessary. In addition, some patients may need revisions if the initial screw is “outgrown.”
Symptomatic relief and conservative measures do not treat the underlying issues but are helpful for patient comfort. However, surgery is the ultimate treatment. Furthermore, SCFE patients have successful outcomes following immediate in situ fixation. It improves the quality of life and reduces morbidity  although complications may still arise in those with severe slippage and deformity. Avascular necrosis, chondrolysis, and osteoarthritis are some of the long term complications.
Patients with severe complications may need salvage hip arthrodesis. Individuals with partially damaged hips may benefit from proximal osteotomies which shift forces to undamaged areas of the femoral head.
While most cases of SCFE are idiopathic, there are risk factors attributed to SCFE. The strongest risk factor is obesity. In fact, most individuals affected with SCFE are obese . The excess weight applies marked shear forces across the physis and weakens it.
Endocrine disorders and rapid growth spurts are also risk factors. Physiologically, the physis becomes weakened during puberty , likely due to the effects of hormones. For example, testosterone reduces the strength of the physis which reflects the higher incidence in males. In contrast, estrogen strengthens the shaft, explaining the lower incidence of SCFE in females. The disorder is not hereditary.
Prevalence is 10.8 cases per 100,000 children . Furthermore, SCFE is more common in males than females. The average age of diagnosis differs in both genders, 13.5 years in males and 12 years of age in females. With regards to race, it is more common in African Americans and Pacific Islanders, which may be correlated to obesity in these populations.
In the northern region of the United States, there are higher rates of SCFE in summer and fall, which is likely related to increased physical activity. It is estimated that 18 to 50% of individuals with SCFE present with bilateral involvement. Some will present unilaterally initially but become bilateral over time .
Multiple factors play a role in the changes of the physis, including obesity, accelerated growth during puberty, and endocrine disorders. Any one of these factors apply stress on the hip joint by directing shear force at the growth plate. More specifically, the excess weight, stress from growth spurt and fluctuating hormones all lead to anterior and superior displacement of the metaphysis. The widened epiphysis in SCFE results from the enlargement of the hypertrophic zone. Furthermore, this zone in a normal physis is usually 15% to 30% whereas it can reach up to 80% in SCFE patients.
Arising from the hypertrophic zone is abnormal cartilage development, endochondral ossification, and perichondral ring instability. These all contribute to the weakened cartilage structure overall, which is the site where slippage emerges.
Normally during growth in children and teenagers, the physis shifts position from horizontal to oblique. This positional change replaces compression forces with shear forces. Hence, these mechanical shifts intensify shear forces on the hip joint and produce SCFE .
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is an anatomical hip disorder characterized by slippage of the proximal epiphysis through the epiphyseal plate. This affects preadolescents and adolescents in the age range of 8 to 15 years of age . Most cases have no known cause, however, there are predisposing risk factors such as obesity, endocrine disorders, and rapid growth during puberty. Hence, it is likely that hormonal effects on the growth plate weakens it.
Suspicion for SCFE should be elevated in children and adolescents with pain in the knee, hip or groin and/or a limp not attributed to any apparent etiology. Furthermore, SCFE can manifest unilaterally or bilaterally with sequential involvement as well. Pelvic /hip radiographs and possibly other imaging modalities are used for diagnosis. Any delays in the diagnosis can be detrimental due to the potential complications.
SCFE is classified according to the the amount of stability, duration of symptoms and whether the patient can apply weight on the affected extremity. As expected, stable SCFE is correlated with a better prognosis . Accurate and prompt recognition is essential to prevent further damage and subsequent complications. As soon as diagnosis is established, surgery should be performed.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a disorder that affects the hip(s) of teenagers. The anatomy of the hip is altered in which the upper thigh bone slips in the backward direction. This occurs with growth spurts in puberty or obese individuals. The cause in most patients is not known. It is more common in boys than girls, which may be due to hormone changes.
While SCFE may develop slowly, in some cases it occurs rapidly after a fall or minor trauma. Patients present to the doctor with vague pain that could be located in hip, groin, or knee. Usually the pain is in the knee. Patients may also have a limp that comes and goes. In certain cases, the patient cannot bear weight on the leg. Patients may have one or both legs involved. Some will initially have one affected leg and then develop SCFE in the other leg at a later point.
SCFE is diagnosed through a detailed history and physical exam. Patients do not have full range of motion of the affected hip(s) and the leg is usually tuned outwards. The doctor will order an X-ray of the hips and pelvis. Some patients that may have other diseases as well and therefore the doctor will order special laboratory tests.
As soon as SCFE is diagnosed, a pediatric orthopedic surgeon will perform urgent surgery to avoid further damage or complications. The surgical procedure consists of a screw insertion on the hip bone to prevent any more slipping and provide stabilization.
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