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Spongiotic Dermatitis


Presentation

  • Occasional dying keratinocytes may be present as a result of direct cytotoxicity in some cases. As a result of severe toxicity, extensive epidermal necrosis may be present [ 47, 48 ].[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • Vase-shaped collections were present in five of 49 consecutive biopsy specimens of spongiotic dermatitis, but in none of 50 specimens of mycosis fungoides.[insights.ovid.com]
  • Clinically, it is presented by erythematous 1–2 mm flat-topped papules on extremities.[e-ijd.org]
  • Reactive or psoriatic arthritis would have been considered had joint involvement been present.[casereports.bmj.com]
  • Those cells are present around the venules of the superficial plexus and between bundles of collagen in the upper part of the dermis.[derm101.com]
Malaise
  • A preceding prodrome may be present and includes malaise, fever, diarrhea, and concomitant lymphadenopathy [ 79 ]. Skin lesions resolve spontaneously within weeks to months without secondary dyschromia or scarring.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
Intertrigo
  • Intertrigo is characterized by macerated, erythematous patches at the skin folds. Candidal intertrigo may be distinguished by presence of satellite papules and pustules.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • Progesterone Dermatitis Bahemuka Brown syndrome bullous skin disease contact dermatitis Dandruff dermatitis herpetiformis dermatosis papulosa nigra Drug Eruptions Eczema erysipelas Exfoliative Dermatitis folliculitis granuloma annulare granulomatous dermatitis Intertrigo[rgd.mcw.edu]
Hypopigmented Macule
  • Fig. 1.22 Pityrisis alba shows scattered, poorly defined hypopigmented macules and patches over the cheeks 1.7.2 Histology Histologic changes in pityriasis alba are nonspecific.[plasticsurgerykey.com]

Workup

  • A thorough history and physical examination can provide the necessary clues for further workup.[mdedge.com]
  • Increased recognition of NE as a possible diagnosis for rash on the reconstructed breast can prevent excessive diagnostic workup, aggressive management, and worse quality of life outcomes in breast cancer patients.[tandfonline.com]
  • […] superinfection Allergy and radioallergosorbent testing is of little value Biopsy shows an acute, subacute, or chronic spongiotic dermatitis pattern that is nonspecific but can be helpful to rule out other conditions (eg, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Candida
  • Pearl Subcorneal pustules: Candida, acropustulosis of infancy, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, Sneddon–Wilkinson (and IgA pemphigus), impetigo, pustular psoriasis, Staphylococcus scalded-skin syndrome (CAT SIPS, or an anagram of SIPS)[clinicalgate.com]
  • Psoriasis Tinea Impetigo Candida Seborrheic dermatitis Syphilis Sandwich sign, neutrophilic spongiform pustules, regular bulbous acanthosis and thin superpapillary plates. Neutrophils in the stratum corneum with subcorneal and spongiform pustules.[brainscape.com]
  • Candida infection and intertrigo occur more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus because these patients have a higher pH in intertriginous areas, which may be a factor that promotes the susceptibility of these patients to Candida infection [[plasticsurgerykey.com]
Sarcoptes Scabiei
  • In consideration to his living situation and immune status, our differential diagnoses included Norwegian scabies, an ectoparasitic infection by Sarcoptes scabiei forming warty, hyperkeratotic lesions; and cutaneous blastomycosis, a deep fungal infection[casereports.bmj.com]

Treatment

  • A large part of initial spongiotic dermatitis treatment involves avoidance.[dermatitisinformation.com]
  • Treatment: The major part of the treatment involves avoiding chemicals present in soaps, washing powders, foods, etc that may trigger the rash.[medigoo.com]
  • A treatment plan including medication, skincare, and lifestyle changes can do a lot to relieve the symptoms and to reduce the risk of future flare-ups.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Disclaimer : The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.[practo.com]
  • If this happens, talk to your doctor about a treatment plan that works for you.[healthline.com]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis is good with resolution of dermatitis if the offending agent is avoided.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • The classification also includes subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL), for which there has been emerging evidence that the αβ variant has a better prognosis and is distinct from the γδ form.[cancernetwork.com]
  • Prognosis Most patients improve; this can occur at any age. While the frequency of atopic dermatitis (AD) is as high as 20% in childhood, [37] it is 0.9% in adults. One third of patients develop allergic rhinitis.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology is certainly of interest with erythroderma because the differential is extensive.[cureus.com]
  • […] within this locus, some of which are calcium-dependent adhesion molecules, such as cadherins, which are important in maintaining the structural integrity of epithelial tissues including the skin. 1.3 Nummular Eczema 1.3.1 Clinical Features The specific etiology[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • Therefore, in the absence of an identifiable etiology, recalcitrant eczema in an adult should raise the suspicion of an internal malignancy, including MM.[karger.com]
  • Rosen et al. predicted the etiology to be a result of skin tension and venous stasis, although these authors described post-reconstruction dermatitis and not specifically NE [ 2 Rosen A, Goh C, Lacouture M, et al.[tandfonline.com]
  • […] keratinocytes, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, and IL-33. [17] Taken together, these studies highlight a new paradigm in which, in addition to classical adaptive Th2 cells, innate type 2 immune cells play critical roles in the etiology[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Lichen striatus: Clinical and epidemiological review of 23 cases. Eur J Pediatr 2006;165:267-9. 3. Lipsker D, Stark J, Schneider GA. Blaschko-linear dermatitis in adulthood (Grosshans-Marot disease) with antinuclear antibodies.[e-ijd.org]
  • It is considered a rare disease with few published studies concerning epidemiology [5]. Etiology is certainly of interest with erythroderma because the differential is extensive.[cureus.com]
  • Further research in broader study populations is necessary to elucidate the pathophysiology, clinical features, and epidemiology of NE of the reconstructed breast. IRB approval This study was exempted from review by the institutional IRB.[tandfonline.com]
  • Epidemiology Frequency United States The prevalence rate for atopic dermatitis (AD) is 10-12% in children and 0.9% in adults.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma: epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, clinical spectrum, staging criteria and therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28 :371–95. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 21. Hartmann K, Henz BM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Spencer Dermatology Group, Crawfordsville, Indiana Clay J Cockerell, MD, Director, Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Division of Dermatopathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center To view the complete reference including pathophysiology[epathologies.com]
  • The pathophysiologic mechanism of spongiosis remains unknown.[ijdvl.com]
  • Further research in broader study populations is necessary to elucidate the pathophysiology, clinical features, and epidemiology of NE of the reconstructed breast. IRB approval This study was exempted from review by the institutional IRB.[tandfonline.com]
  • This gradual response may be attributable to the severity of their disease or to the time required for efalizumab to correct the pathophysiologic conditions.[jamanetwork.com]
  • .: Erythrodermic psoriasis: pathophysiology and current treatment perspectives. Psoriasis. 2016, 6:93-104. 10.2147/ptt.s101232 Tan GF, Kong YL, Tan AS, Tey HL: Causes and features of erythroderma. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2014, 43:391-394.[cureus.com]

Prevention

  • There is no real cure, but outbreaks can be prevented.[medigoo.com]
  • Wearing bandages, dressings, or wet wraps on top of creams to stop the ointment from rubbing off, and to prevent scratching. Wet wraps are not recommended for babies or children as they can become too cold.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Avoidance of known skin irritants be they chemicals in washing powders, elements in clothing or components of foods is all part of spongiotic dermatitis treatment if one subscribes to the view that prevention is better than cure.[dermatitisinformation.com]
  • Regular application of creams or ointments helps reduce and can prevent a flare of atopic dermatitis.[verywellhealth.com]
  • Conclusions: Treg cells have been proved to suppress other skin-resident T-cells and prevent autoimmunity.[ijdpdd.com]

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