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Squamous Cell Carcinoma


Presentation

  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old non-smoking male presented to the head and neck oncology clinic with a five-month history of enlarging right neck mass causing neck pain, dysphagia, and dysphonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He presented to the dermatology department for evaluation of a pigmented longitudinal streak on the left third finger adjacent to the lateral nail fold that had been present for several months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report we report a case of a 50-year-old Sri Lankan woman who complained of pain and increase in the size of a swelling at the anterior mandible, which had been present for over 1 year.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because a delayed or incorrect diagnosis can have a devastating outcome, physicians should maintain a high index of clinical suspicion for PSCC in patients presenting with penile lesions, particularly in young or middle-aged patients in whom presentation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Samples were collected from 93 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma who presented for follow-up. Immunohistochemical expression of methallothionein in all groups was performed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • Those on treatment plans without chemotherapy can also suffer side-effects including red skin, a sore throat, fatigue, change in taste and thickening of saliva, but Professor Porceddu said the symptoms are resolved over a six-week period.[abc.net.au]
  • The main symptoms were: loss of appetite, fatigue, shortness of breath, cough.[medichub.ro]
Fever
  • You have a fever. You have chills, a cough, or feel weak and achy. You have questions or concerns about your condition or care. When should I seek immediate care or call 911? You have trouble thinking clearly. You have shortness of breath.[drugs.com]
  • […] squamous cell carcinoma of the lung may notice: Coughing (8-75%) Weight loss (0-68%) Shortness of breath (3-60%) Chest pain (20-49%): often ill-defined and aching Haemoptysis (coughing up blood) : sputum may be streaked with blood Non-specific symptoms: fever[myvmc.com]
Hypoxemia
  • CONCLUSION: Pulmonary tumor embolism should be considered when patients with malignant disease develop unexplained dyspnea, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension. Copyright 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysphagia
  • PATIENT CONCERNS: A 76-year-old man with dysphagia presented to a local clinic. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a polypoid tumor in the middle esophagus and he was referred to our hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old non-smoking male presented to the head and neck oncology clinic with a five-month history of enlarging right neck mass causing neck pain, dysphagia, and dysphonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing, solids worse than liquids) and painful swallowing are common initial symptoms. If the disease is localized, surgical removal of the affected esophagus may offer the possibility of a cure.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Additionally, local symptoms such as dysphagia or otalgia (for a progressive squamous cell carcinoma on the face) are prominent. In the United States an estimated 3932 to 8791 patients died from invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in 2012.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Lower Limb Muscle Weakness
  • Dehydration and lower limb muscle weakness were noted, as were laboratory findings of coagulation abnormalities and renal dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neck Pain
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old non-smoking male presented to the head and neck oncology clinic with a five-month history of enlarging right neck mass causing neck pain, dysphagia, and dysphonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cheek Pain
  • He presented to us with left-sided orbital and cheek pain and nasal obstruction. Endoscopy detected a friable, exophytic mass that involved the left lateral nasal wall and septum. Biopsy analysis identified the mass as an SCC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Meningism
  • Although S. marcescens is known to cause sepsis, meningitis, endocarditis, urinary system and ocular infections, skin infections are sporadic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Diagnosis Diagnostic workup of suspected cSCC will include computed tomography (CT) scanning to evaluate for soft tissue or bony invasion and lymph node metastasis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Foam Cell
  • Histopathologically, the excised specimen was indicative of MCC coincident with SCC and showed extensive necrosis in the upper portion of the tumor, numerous caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells, an accumulation of CD68-positive foam cells and vascular[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • RATIONALE: Novel treatment strategies such as immunotherapy are being evaluated to further improve the outcomes of colorectal cancer patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient received treatment with chemotherapy (etoposide 0.1 g day 2-5  cis-platinum 30 mg day 2-4) after acquiring resistance to gefitinib.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thus, radiotherapy for local control might be beneficial for elderly patients with complications and those refusing aggressive treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment for secondary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid varies with the site and extent of spread of the primary tumour.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Oncology; ophthalmology; radiation oncology; radiation therapy treatment; superficial x-ray therapy (SXRT)[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • KEYWORDS: DHRS9; oral cancer; prognosis; tumour suppressor[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All of these were indicators of poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • LESSONS: Primary SCC of the pancreas is associated with a poor prognosis. Comprehensive therapy and proper radiologic evaluation may facilitate prolonged survival of these patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathogenesis, stage and prognosis of this entity are discussed. More case studies with long-term follow up are needed to achieve an accurate tumor stage and definite prognosis. Copyright 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Expression of SOX9 was significantly positively correlated with depth of invasion, advanced stage, lymphatic and venous invasion, and poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiological risk factor for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important etiological factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Oral human papillomavirus (HPV), typically acquired via oral-genital contact, may have a role in the etiology of some oral cancers; however, HPV is identified in oral cancer much less often than it is in oropharyngeal cancer.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Of note, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological factor for squamous cell carcinoma is strongest in oral cavity (compared to other regions in the head and neck), with HPV DNA isolated from up to 50% of cases, and thought responsible for[radiopaedia.org]
  • Etiology Pathophysiology While cumulative ultraviolet exposure and skin type are the most important etiologic factors in the development of squamous celll carcinomas, other risk factors include: immunosuppression, older age, certain chemical exposures[clinicaladvisor.com]

Epidemiology

  • The case is being presented because of its rarity and represents a unique and hitherto seldom-reported combination of two malignant tumours with distinct and often contrasting epidemiology, histology and prognosis coexisting in the same patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Skin cancers have a higher incidence than any other type of cancer that continues to rise, despite knowledge and public health campaigns about their prevention.[news-medical.net]
  • Epidemiology and risk factors are similar to squamous cell carcinomas elsewhere in the upper aerodigestive tract, with tobacco smoking and alcohol ingestion being major risk factors 1-3,9.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Jolieke C. van der Pols, Epidemiology of Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin, Skin Cancer - A World-Wide Perspective, 10.1007/978-3-642-05072-5_1, (3-12), (2010).[doi.org]
  • Int J Cancer 39 : 710–716 Willett WC, Stampfer MJ (1986) Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Immunosuppressants are implicated in the pathophysiology of this malignancy, but equally plausible is the oncogenic role of chronic inflammation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare entity and as such knowledge about the pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis are still uncertain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ., 13,000 new invasive carcinomas, Cancer 2004;100:1035 ) Mean age 51 years, uncommon before age 30 years but most are ages 45 - 55 years Drawings : Images hosted on other servers : Evolution of invasive carcinoma from SIL Pathophysiology / etiology Caused[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Etiology Pathophysiology While cumulative ultraviolet exposure and skin type are the most important etiologic factors in the development of squamous celll carcinomas, other risk factors include: immunosuppression, older age, certain chemical exposures[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Pathophysiology Malignant transformation of normal epidermal keratinocytes is the hallmark of cSCC. One critical pathogenic event is the development of apoptotic resistance through functional loss of TP53, a well-studied tumor suppressor gene.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • The rate of metastasis in patients of color is 31%, compared with only 4% in Caucasians. 4,5 Early recognition by physicians and increased awareness resulting in preventative measures by patients may decrease this noted disparity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Accumulating evidence demonstrates that aspirin (ASA) acts as a preventive or therapeutic agent in multiple cancers; however, anti-tumor activities induced by aspirin are unclear in OSCC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The invasive conjunctival SCC requires an early diagnosis for elderly patients in order to prevent the ocular and orbital invasion and the appearance of metastases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early detection and treatment of PSCC can prevent organ dysfunction, loss of organ, or even death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Questions to Ask Your Doctor Skin Cancer Prevention Sunscreen for Skin Cancer Prevention UCSF Research & Clinical Trials UCSF Cancer Clinical Trials Search for a Clinical Trial Other Resources Cancer Information Service Cancer Clinical Trials Healthfinder[ucsfhealth.org]

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