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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus

Anus Carcinoma Squamous


Presentation

  • CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient with HCS who developed anal squamous cell carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Twenty five years of experience with SCCA at this institution were reviewed to examine the presentation and outcome of a population treated primarily with surgery. Forty two patients, including 26 women and 16 men, had a mean age of 56 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The stage of disease at presentation included: one Stage 0, two Stage I, two Stage II, and four Stage III patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purposes of this retrospective study were: first to describe the clinical presentation and outcome of HIV-positive patients with SCCA, second to compare them with the ones reported in the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Forty had metastatic relapse after previous treatment of localized disease, and 10 presented with synchronous metastasis. P16 status was not available.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Falling
  • PDF Cite Citation Yotam Arens, Keith Sigel, Michael Gaisa, Annika Burnett, Stephen Goldstone, Risk of Progression of High Grade Anal Dysplasia to Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Volume 3, Issue suppl_1, Fall[ofid.oxfordjournals.org]
Constipation
  • Other symptoms include: Small lumps seen or felt around the anus which could be confused with piles An increase in the number or size of piles Pain in the anal area – affects about 30% of people Difficulty in passing stools and extreme constipation are[beatingbowelcancer.org]
  • Side effects may include: diarrhea or constipation soreness and blistering around the target area, which is the anus a higher susceptibility to infections during treatment fatigue loss of appetite nausea or vomiting mouth ulcers or sore mouth loss of[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Anal cancer may present with: Bleeding from the anus A growing lump within or outside the anus Anal itching or pain An mucus or jelly-like discharge from the anus Constipation, bloating, diarrhoea or faecal incontinence (leakage) Symptoms are often thought[dermnetnz.org]
  • In case 2, a 71-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to constipation, and an elevated lesion, 25 mm in size, was identified from the dentate line to the anal canal.[karger.com]
  • Other symptoms from colon cancer may include diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty completely, stools that are narrower than usual, frequent gas pains, bloating, fullness, or cramps, weight loss for no known reason, nausea/vomiting[surgery.uic.edu]
Fecal Incontinence
  • Some patients have fecal incontinence after combined chemotherapy and radiation. Biopsies to document disease regression after chemotherapy and radiation were commonly advised, but are not as frequent any longer.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] or toilet paper pain in the anal area lumps around the anus, which may be mistaken for piles, or hemorrhoids mucus or jelly-like discharge from the anus anal itching changes in bowel movements, including diarrhea, constipation, or thinning of stools fecal[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Rectal bleeding, fecal incontinence, and high stool frequency after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: normal tissue complication probability modeling. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, 11–19 (2006). 66. Heemsbergen, W.[nature.com]
Osteoporosis
  • OBJECTIVE: Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS), first described in 1948 by Hajdu and independently in 1965 by Cheney, is an extremely rare disorder characterized by severe and excessive bone resorption leading to osteoporosis, with a wide range of other systemic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Suggestibility
  • It therefore seems appropriate to suggest irradiation /- cytostatics as the therapy of choice regardless of size, location, and differentiation of the tumor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Reasons for this are explored and suggestions made for the treatment of such patients in the future.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our data suggests that the optimum time for assessment of complete clinical response after chemoradiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus is 26 weeks from starting chemoradiotherapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There have been several reports associating polycystic kidneys with HCS and several other connective tissue disorders, suggesting a possibility of a hyperproliferative component to the syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspareunia
  • Main difficulties reported were troubles of lubrication, orgasm, and dyspareunia. Confection of a VRAM did not influence the recovery of SL (P 0.717). Colpectomy reduced return of SL (P 0.026).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • PET-CT Recent research suggests that there are grounds for using PET-CT routinely in the workup of anal cancer, as it alters the initial staging sufficiently frequently 4.[radiopaedia.org]

Treatment

  • After 2 years, 40% of patients with multimodal treatment and 20% of those without ablative treatment were alive. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by its retrospective design and modest sample size.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients with unresectable or borderline unresectable disease have poor outcomes, thus adjunctive treatments should be explored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PURPOSE: Patients diagnosed as having anal cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive disease were evaluated for response to treatment and its associated toxicity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finally, the treatment of recurrent and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus remains a great dilemma. The first choice of treatment for local recurrence should be excision whenever possible.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The five-year survival rate in 72 patients who underwent treatment for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus in Stockholm County (1972 to 1978) has been studied.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • CONCLUSION: AA confers a significantly worse prognosis than SCCA and RA. Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis and the type of treatment in relation to the location of the tumour-in the anal canal or at the anal margin-are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Persistent and recurrent disease does not show any significant difference in survival, but patients with late recurrence may have a better prognosis. Colorectal Disease 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis of Anal Cancer (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus) Anal cancer prognosis depends upon the size of the anal tumour, where the anal tumour is and whether it has spread to the lymph nodes.[myvmc.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology The most important risk factors for HPV and SCC are behaviors that predispose individuals to HPV infection or immunosuppression.[cancertherapyadvisor.com]
  • (Etiology) Untreated (or delayed treatment of) squamous cell carcinoma in situ can result in invasive squamous cell carcinoma.[dovemed.com]
  • "On the etiology of anal squamous carcinoma". Danish Medical Bulletin. 49 (3): 194–209. PMID 12238281. Frisch M, Glimelius B, van den Brule AJ, et al. (November 1997). "Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer". N. Engl. J.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • They both have the same virologic etiology [ 32, 33 ], as well as similar precursor lesions, anal intraepithelial neoplasia [ 34 ] and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, both of which may progress to SCCA and cervical cancer, respectively.[journals.plos.org]

Epidemiology

  • HIV Seropositivity/metabolism HIV Seropositivity/therapy Humans Immunocompromised Host Oncogene Proteins, Viral/metabolism Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology Papillomavirus Vaccines Repressor Proteins/metabolism Substances AIDS Vaccines DNA, Neoplasm[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Keywords Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology/transmission — Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology/pathology/prevention & control/virology — Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology/pathology/prevention & control/virology — Comorbidity — Disease Transmission[archive-ouverte.unige.ch]
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database to identify patients 18 years old with AA, squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), and rectal adenocarcinoma (RA) diagnosed between 1990 and 2011.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2000 and March 2010 we retrospectively collected epidemiological, clinical and survival data from 65 patients with SCCA in HIV infection enrolled within the GICAT. RESULTS: Fifty-three (81.5%) patients were male.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Methods: We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry linked to Medicare claims to evaluate outcomes among a cohort of male HIV and HIV- patients diagnosed with SCCA from 1997 to 2009.[croiconference.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] features, although the biology may be different ( J Gastroenterol 2001;36:508 ) Epidemiology Tumors above dentate line: more common in women, usually diagnosed in sixth decade Tumors below dentate line: more common in men, usually diagnosed in third decade Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]

Prevention

  • In the future, cytological screening of male homosexuals with an anal Papanicolaou test may help in identifying high-grade dysplasia and preventing anal cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finally, we show how, with anti-HPV vaccines, immunity is a target in the prevention of SCCA and could in the future be used in its treatment. Copyright 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Keywords Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology/transmission — Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology/pathology/prevention & control/virology — Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology/pathology/prevention & control/virology — Comorbidity — Disease Transmission[archive-ouverte.unige.ch]
  • Large-scale cancer-prevention strategies (routine anuscopy and anal papanicolaou testing) should be implemented in this population.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this way, local recurrence can be prevented insofar as possible, invasive lesions can be completely eradicated, and patients with lymph node involvement will be given the greatest opportunity for survival.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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