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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is one of the most common subtypes of lung cancers and belongs to the group of non-small cell lung carcinomas. Cigarette smoking is still recognized as the principal risk factor. Patients may be completely asymptomatic or present with dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, weight loss, and an array of paraneoplastic syndromes. Imaging studies and a biopsy of the tumor are essential to identify the location, the extent of tumor progression, and the exact type.


Presentation

Lung cancer is the most important malignancy-related death worldwide, causing more than 150,000 deaths in the United States alone every year [1]. Two broad categories exist - small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with approximately 85% of new cases being NSCLC [2] [3] [4]. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (estimated to cause 400,000 deaths worldwide every year) comprises approximately 30% of all NSCLC cases [2] [5] [6] [7]. Similarly to other subtypes, tobacco smoking remains the single most important risk factor for its development, while exposure to radon gas and asbestos are well-known risk factors as well [2] [5] [6] [7]. The clinical presentation of lung cancer is highly variable. The diagnosis is made incidentally in a significant number of patients, as many are asymptomatic when lung cancer is detected [4] [8]. Conversely, the progression of the tumor and several other factors (eg. location) may lead to symptoms such as dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, weight loss, fatigue, and anorexia [3] [4] [8] [9]. Numerous complications are documented, including pleural effusions, thromboembolic disease, together with several paraneoplastic syndromes that have been described [4] [8] [9]. Additionally, metastatic spread to various sites can produce characteristic symptoms - localized pain and fractures are seen with skeletal metastases; headaches, nausea, vomiting, and mental changes are main signs of cranial spread, whereas lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and subcutaneous nodules are other notable findings [8]. Given the limited choices of therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung the prognosis remains poor, particularly in the case of metastatic spread [7].

Localized Pain
  • Additionally, metastatic spread to various sites can produce characteristic symptoms - localized pain and fractures are seen with skeletal metastases; headaches, nausea, vomiting, and mental changes are main signs of cranial spread, whereas lymphadenopathy[symptoma.com]
Hemoptysis
  • Patients may be completely asymptomatic or present with dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, weight loss, and an array of paraneoplastic syndromes.[symptoma.com]
  • He had an esophageal stent inserted, but he later died of sudden hemoptysis. 2017 The Author(s). Published by S.[karger.com]
  • A chronic cough and hemoptysis may be present. More peripheral tumors, if not found incidentally on imaging, usually present when larger, invading into chest wall (e.g. Pancoast tumor ) 3.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Clinical: May be associated with elevated serum calcium. [1] /-Hemoptysis. Gross Lung mass - usually centrally located, i.e. associated with a large airway. Image Squamous carcinoma of the lung. (WC) Microscopic Features: Central nucleus.[librepathology.org]
  • These include worsening cough, including hemoptysis, chest pain, shortness of breath and weight loss.[en.wikipedia.org]
Upper Abdominal Pain
  • Three years later, the patient presented to our emergency room with the symptom of upper abdominal pain and weight loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chest Pain
  • He received palliative treatment but died 4 months after the onset of chest pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conversely, the progression of the tumor and several other factors (eg. location) may lead to symptoms such as dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, weight loss, fatigue, and anorexia.[symptoma.com]
  • These include worsening cough, including hemoptysis, chest pain, shortness of breath and weight loss.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms Pleural Mesothelioma Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma cancer include shortness of breath, chest pain, a persistent cough, loss of appetite, fatigue, accumulation of pleural fluid (which causes chest pain), and weight loss.[impactlaw.com]
  • The cause of development of this cancer type is unknown, but the risk factors (other than smoking) may include exposure to arsenic and other carcinogens Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung arises in the proximal airways of the lung and can cause chest pain[dovemed.com]
Subcutaneous Nodule
Pruritic Rash
  • We report on the case of a man who presented with a severe, pruritic rash 5 months prior to diagnosis of a resectable lung malignancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Myopathy
  • Antisynthetase syndrome is a heterogeneous idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Anti-Jo1 is the most common antibody found in this condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lower Limb Muscle Weakness
  • Dehydration and lower limb muscle weakness were noted, as were laboratory findings of coagulation abnormalities and renal dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Left Shoulder Pain
  • We are reporting a case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a 13-year-old boy who presented with left shoulder pain secondary to bone metastasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Foot Pain
  • A 61-year-old man with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung presented with a progressive left foot pain for 7 months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysarthria
  • We report a 78-year-old man who presented with rapidly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and vertigo. MRI of the brain showed no evidence of infiltrative pathology in the posterior fossa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Ataxia
  • We report a 78-year-old man who presented with rapidly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and vertigo. MRI of the brain showed no evidence of infiltrative pathology in the posterior fossa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cerebellar Ataxia
  • We report a 78-year-old man who presented with rapidly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and vertigo. MRI of the brain showed no evidence of infiltrative pathology in the posterior fossa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neglect
  • Abstract Advanced squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma (SqCC) has traditionally been considered the 'neglected sibling' compared with lung adenocarcinoma due to lack of effective targeted treatment options.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung rests on a comprehensive clinical, imaging, and histopathological workup. Firstly, the physician should conduct a detailed patient history (during which the course of symptoms and their severity should be assessed) and perform a meticulous physical examination [8]. Because of the insidious nature of lung cancer in general (including squamous cell carcinoma of the lung), this diagnosis should be considered in all cases who present with undisclosed respiratory and constitutional complaints. Plain radiography of the chest is the first imaging study the needs to be employed, which may show single or multiple masses, hilar enlargement, atelectasis, and many other findings that suggest a malignant process, but some patients have a normal X-ray if smaller tumors are present or if their location renders them poorly visible [4] [9]. For this reason, computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET) are recommended [4] [9] [10]. To discriminate between lung tumors and confirm the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, it is necessary to perform a biopsy of the lesion. A CT-guided percutaneous biopsy or a flexible bronchoscopy with subsequent histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry can be done [9] [10] [11]. Additional methods that may be implemented are conventional bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, and aspiration cytology of pleural fluid, whereas electromagnetic navigation (EMN) bronchoscopy and radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS)-guided lung biopsy are novel techniques that show promising results [4] [9] [11].

Cytopenia
  • In addition, the side effect profile in the nab -paclitaxel arm was more favorable, with less myalgias, neuropathy, and cytopenias ( 15 ).[doi.org]

Treatment

  • After these treatments, he underwent partial lobectomy and pneumonectomy because of disease recurrence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This overview of the treatment of squamous cell lung carcinoma highlights these recent molecular advances and discusses applications of newer cytotoxic and targeted agents evaluated for the treatment of advanced SCC ( Figure 1 ).[doi.org]

Prognosis

  • HYAL1-wt was associated with a poorer prognosis and HYAL3-v1 with a better prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Ashy dermatosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is an etiologic agent in squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) arising in the oropharynx and cervix, and a proven prognostic factor in oropharyngeal SqCC.[humpath.com]
  • (Etiology) The exact cause of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung is unknown.[dovemed.com]
  • Etiology Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2011 Oct;20(4):605-18. Clin Chest Med. 2011 Dec;32(4):605-44. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Oct 15;82(8):1015-21.[pathophys.org]

Epidemiology

  • Yokohama, Japan. 5 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. 6 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. 7 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Comparison of aspects of smoking among the four histological types of lung cancer S A Kenfield 1, 2, E K Wei 2, M J Stampfer 1, 2, B A Rosner 2, 3, G A Colditz 4 1 Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA[doi.org]
  • Epidemiology [ edit ] Lung squamous-cell carcinoma is the second most common histologic type of lung cancer after adenocarcinoma, reaching 22.6% of all lung cancer cases as of 2012. [11] The relative incidence of the former has been steadily decreasing[en.wikipedia.org]
  • He completed a Masters of Medicine (Clinical Epidemiology) and a PhD, also at the University of Sydney. Dr. Ellis moved to Canada in October, 2000.[newevidence.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Symptoms Mechanism and pathophysiology Primary lung lesion symptoms Cough (50-70%) Presence of a mass irritates the cough receptors in the airway More common in squamous cell carcinoma andSCLC (more commonly found in the central airways) Obstruction from[pathophys.org]
  • Discussion Visual loss in a patient with systemic cancer can be complicated; the underlying pathophysiology may vary.[journals.lww.com]

Prevention

  • Smoking prevention and cessation should continue to be the focus of public health efforts to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality.[doi.org]
  • How can Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung be Prevented? Currently, there is no known prevention method for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung.[dovemed.com]
  • […] ar لقد قلت أنني سأقتله- اصغ ، تمهل ثانية en Cervical cancer is preventable, however, by doing cervical smears, which can detect the abnormalities preceding invasive cancer, known as squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and previously known as cervical[glosbe.com]
  • In normal tissues, immune checkpoint pathways prevent overactivation of the immune system to protect self-tissues.[link.springer.com]
  • The findings might also have cancer prevention implications and dietary implications for patients with cancer — a question the coauthors will address in a planned follow-up animal study of sugar-restricted diets lung tumor progression, according to a[cancertherapyadvisor.com]

References

Article

  1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66(1):7-30.
  2. Heist RS, Mino-Kenudson M, Sequist LV, et al. FGFR1 amplification in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. J Thorac Oncol. 2012;7(12):1775-1780.
  3. Ettinger DS, Akerley W, Bepler G, et al. Non-small cell lung cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2010;8(7):740-801.
  4. Porter RS, Kaplan JL. Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 19th Edition. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Whitehouse Station, N.J; 2011.
  5. Derman BA, Mileham KF, Bonomi PD, Batus M, Fidler MJ. Treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: a review. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2015;4(5):524-532.
  6. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers. Nature. 2012;489(7417):519-525.
  7. Rooney M, Devarakonda S, Govindan R. Genomics of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer. Oncologist. 2013;18(6):707-716.
  8. Latimer KM, Mott TF. Lung cancer: diagnosis, treatment principles, and screening. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(4):250-256.
  9. Simoff MJ, Lally B, Slade MG, et al. Symptom management in patients with lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2013;143(5 Suppl):e455S-497S.
  10. Dietel M, Bubendorf L, Dingemans A-MC, et al. Diagnostic procedures for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): recommendations of the European Expert Group. Thorax. 2016;71(2):177-184.
  11. Rivera MP, Mehta AC, Wahidi MM. Establishing the diagnosis of lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2013;143(5 Suppl):e142S-165S.

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Last updated: 2019-06-28 09:26