Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is one of the most common subtypes of lung cancers and belongs to the group of non-small cell lung carcinomas. Cigarette smoking is still recognized as the principal risk factor. Patients may be completely asymptomatic or present with dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, weight loss, and an array of paraneoplastic syndromes. Imaging studies and a biopsy of the tumor are essential to identify the location, the extent of tumor progression, and the exact type.
Lung cancer is the most important malignancy-related death worldwide, causing more than 150,000 deaths in the United States alone every year . Two broad categories exist - small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with approximately 85% of new cases being NSCLC   . Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (estimated to cause 400,000 deaths worldwide every year) comprises approximately 30% of all NSCLC cases    . Similarly to other subtypes, tobacco smoking remains the single most important risk factor for its development, while exposure to radon gas and asbestos are well-known risk factors as well    . The clinical presentation of lung cancer is highly variable. The diagnosis is made incidentally in a significant number of patients, as many are asymptomatic when lung cancer is detected  . Conversely, the progression of the tumor and several other factors (eg. location) may lead to symptoms such as dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, weight loss, fatigue, and anorexia    . Numerous complications are documented, including pleural effusions, thromboembolic disease, together with several paraneoplastic syndromes that have been described   . Additionally, metastatic spread to various sites can produce characteristic symptoms - localized pain and fractures are seen with skeletal metastases; headaches, nausea, vomiting, and mental changes are main signs of cranial spread, whereas lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and subcutaneous nodules are other notable findings . Given the limited choices of therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung the prognosis remains poor, particularly in the case of metastatic spread .
Patients may be completely asymptomatic or present with dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, weight loss, and an array of paraneoplastic syndromes. [symptoma.com]
Snap Shot A 69-year-old male with a 50-pack-year smoking history presents with worsening cough, weight loss, and repeated episodes of hemoptysis. A chest radiograph is taken and shown at right. [medbullets.com]
He had an esophageal stent inserted, but he later died of sudden hemoptysis. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. [karger.com]
A chronic cough and hemoptysis may be present. More peripheral tumors, if not found incidentally on imaging, usually present when larger, invading into chest wall (e.g. Pancoast tumor ) 3. [radiopaedia.org]
Clinical: May be associated with elevated serum calcium.  +/-Hemoptysis. Gross Lung mass - usually centrally located, i.e. associated with a large airway. Image Squamous carcinoma of the lung. (WC) Microscopic Features: Central nucleus. [librepathology.org]
- Chest Pain
He received palliative treatment but died 4 months after the onset of chest pain. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms Pleural Mesothelioma Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma cancer include shortness of breath, chest pain, a persistent cough, loss of appetite, fatigue, accumulation of pleural fluid (which causes chest pain), and weight loss. [impactlaw.com]
Conversely, the progression of the tumor and several other factors (eg. location) may lead to symptoms such as dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, weight loss, fatigue, and anorexia. [symptoma.com]
See also Mediastinal involvement Chest pain (20%) Tumour involving pleural surface causing pleuritic chest pain See also Mediastinal involvement Mediastinal involvement Superior vena cava syndrome Obstruction of superior vena cava by the tumour More common [pathophys.org]
These include worsening cough, including hemoptysis, chest pain, shortness of breath and weight loss. [en.wikipedia.org]
The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung rests on a comprehensive clinical, imaging, and histopathological workup. Firstly, the physician should conduct a detailed patient history (during which the course of symptoms and their severity should be assessed) and perform a meticulous physical examination . Because of the insidious nature of lung cancer in general (including squamous cell carcinoma of the lung), this diagnosis should be considered in all cases who present with undisclosed respiratory and constitutional complaints. Plain radiography of the chest is the first imaging study the needs to be employed, which may show single or multiple masses, hilar enlargement, atelectasis, and many other findings that suggest a malignant process, but some patients have a normal X-ray if smaller tumors are present or if their location renders them poorly visible  . For this reason, computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET) are recommended   . To discriminate between lung tumors and confirm the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, it is necessary to perform a biopsy of the lesion. A CT-guided percutaneous biopsy or a flexible bronchoscopy with subsequent histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry can be done   . Additional methods that may be implemented are conventional bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, and aspiration cytology of pleural fluid, whereas electromagnetic navigation (EMN) bronchoscopy and radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS)-guided lung biopsy are novel techniques that show promising results   .
This overview of the treatment of squamous cell lung carcinoma highlights these recent molecular advances and discusses applications of newer cytotoxic and targeted agents evaluated for the treatment of advanced SCC ( Figure 1 ). [doi.org]
Abstract Treatment for non-small cell lung cancer has been improving, with personalized treatment increasingly becoming a reality in the clinic. Unfortunately, these advances have largely been confined to the treatment of adenocarcinomas. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
FDA has approved a supplemental New Drug Application for afatinib (Gilotrif—Boehringer Ingelheim) tablets for the treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung whose disease has progressed after treatment with platinum-based [pharmacist.com]
HYAL1-wt was associated with a poorer prognosis and HYAL3-v1 with a better prognosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Alveolar space-filling peripheral variant; this subtype appears to have a better prognosis 6. [e-immunohistochemistry.info]
Treatment and prognosis Classification of lung cancer into histological and immunohistochemical subtypes has a bearing on oncologic therapy. [radiopaedia.org]
Ashy dermatosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is an etiologic agent in squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) arising in the oropharynx and cervix, and a proven prognostic factor in oropharyngeal SqCC. [humpath.com]
Etiology Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2011 Oct;20(4):605-18. Clin Chest Med. 2011 Dec;32(4):605-44. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Oct 15;82(8):1015-21. [pathophys.org]
(Etiology) The exact cause of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung is unknown. [dovemed.com]
Yokohama, Japan. 5 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. 6 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. 7 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Comparison of aspects of smoking among the four histological types of lung cancer S A Kenfield 1, 2, E K Wei 2, M J Stampfer 1, 2, B A Rosner 2, 3, G A Colditz 4 1 Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [doi.org]
Epidemiology [ edit ] Lung squamous-cell carcinoma is the second most common histologic type of lung cancer after adenocarcinoma, reaching 22.6% of all lung cancer cases as of 2012.  The relative incidence of the former has been steadily decreasing [en.wikipedia.org]
Epidemiological data show recently that overall survival (OS) gains more pronounced for patients with adenocarcinoma histology, less for patients with squamous-cell tumors(2). [medichub.ro]
He completed a Masters of Medicine (Clinical Epidemiology) and a PhD, also at the University of Sydney. Dr. Ellis moved to Canada in October, 2000. [newevidence.com]
Symptoms Mechanism and pathophysiology Primary lung lesion symptoms Cough (50-70%) Presence of a mass irritates the cough receptors in the airway More common in squamous cell carcinoma andSCLC (more commonly found in the central airways) Obstruction from [pathophys.org]
Discussion Visual loss in a patient with systemic cancer can be complicated; the underlying pathophysiology may vary. [journals.lww.com]
Smoking prevention and cessation should continue to be the focus of public health efforts to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality. [doi.org]
[…] ar لقد قلت أنني سأقتله- اصغ ، تمهل ثانية en Cervical cancer is preventable, however, by doing cervical smears, which can detect the abnormalities preceding invasive cancer, known as squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and previously known as cervical [glosbe.com]
The findings might also have cancer prevention implications and dietary implications for patients with cancer — a question the coauthors will address in a planned follow-up animal study of sugar-restricted diets lung tumor progression, according to a [cancertherapyadvisor.com]
Reconstitution Instructions These slides are paraffin coated to prevent sample oxidization, it is recommended that slides are first de-paraffinized by baking at 62 degrees C for 1 hour in a vertical orientation prior to performing antigen retrieval procedures [novusbio.com]
Is It Possible to Prevent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Lung cancer remains a highly preventable disease because 85% of lung cancers occur in people who smoke or used to smoke. The best way to prevent lung cancer is not to smoke. [emedicinehealth.com]
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