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Staphylococcal Infection


Presentation

  • Decreased serum complement was present in 60%. Increased serum IgA was noted in 75%. The mean peak serum creatinine was 5.1 mg/dL, and 20% required acute dialysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • You may also have chills and a fever. Endocarditis causes some flu-like symptoms: fever, chills, and fatigue. It also causes symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, and fluid buildup in your arms or legs.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • It causes a high fever, a dramatic drop in blood pressure (shock), dizziness and confusion. Septic arthritis: a condition where a joint becomes infected with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria causing joint swelling, pain and fever.[yourgenome.org]
  • Fever and altered consciousness were the leading clinical manifestations. A preceding postneurosurgical state was noted in 12 of the 19 S. aureus infections and all 19 CoNS infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Endocarditis may develop spontaneously on normal valves or on valves damaged by rheumatic fever. It may also follow insertion of prosthetic valves or other intracardiac surgery.[histopathology-india.net]
Wound Infection
  • S aureus is the most common cause of pyogenic infection of the skin; it also may cause osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, wound infection, abscess, pneumonia, empyema, endocarditis, pericarditis, meningitis, and toxin-mediated diseases, including food poisoning[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Deep sternal wound infections may result, often in the first few weeks after the operation. S. epidermidis can be the direct cause (without foreign body) of bladder infections, endocarditis, and other infections.[histopathology-india.net]
  • Staph is one of the most common causes of skin infections and can cause serious wound infections. Since the 1950s, some strains of staph have built up resistance to antibiotics.[rch.org.au]
  • Wound infections generally show up 2 or more days after the injury or surgery. The signs of a wound infection (redness, pain, swelling, and warmth) are similar to those found in cellulitis. A person might have fever and feel sick in general.[kidshealth.org]
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
  • A 37-year-old man developed Henoch--Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) with nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis after otitis media and externa due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • Common symptoms include: abdominal cramps nausea vomiting In some cases, these symptoms are followed by diarrhoea. The symptoms of staphylococcal food poisoning usually pass within 24 hours.[hse.ie]
  • Food poisoning typically causes nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and a fever. If you lose too many fluids, you may also become dehydrated. Pneumonia symptoms include a high fever, chills, and cough that doesn't get better.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Side effects of nafcillin are usually mild and include nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. If the infection is caused by meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), an antibiotic called vancomycin is prescribed.[your.md]
Abdominal Cramps
  • Incubation Period 1-6 hours Symptoms Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, severe abdominal cramps, mild fever Duration of Illness 24-48 hours What Do I Do? Drink plenty of fluids and get rest.[foodsafety.gov]
  • Diarrhea, with or without abdominal cramping, may be a flu-like symptom caused by a bacterial infection, particularly infections caused by spoiled or unclean food.[livestrong.com]
  • Food poisoning is characterized by symptoms like: Vomiting Nausea Dehydration Diarrhea Sweating Fatigue Abdominal Cramps These symptoms normally begin six to ten hours after eating infected food.[fitnesshealth101.com]
  • Common symptoms include: abdominal cramps nausea vomiting In some cases, these symptoms are followed by diarrhoea. The symptoms of staphylococcal food poisoning usually pass within 24 hours.[hse.ie]
Eczema
  • Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and lung infections, and significantly elevated serum IgE level.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Suspected involvement in atopic dermatitis (eczema), including related clinical trials. The main coagulase-positive staphylococcus is Staphylococcus aureus, although not all strains of Staphylococcus aureus are coagulase positive.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • If your child has eczema, an affected area of skin may become infected with staph. Staph can cause other kinds of illnesses including bone infections, impetigo (school sores), pneumonia and blood stream infections.[rch.org.au]
  • Medication with systemic steroids , retinoids , cytotoxics or immunosuppressives Immunoglobulin M deficiency Chronic granulomatous disease Chediak-Higashi syndrome Job and Wiskott Aldrich syndromes (associations of severe staphylococcal infection with eczema[dermnetnz.org]
Eruptions
  • A severe and potentially fatal variant of the disease, Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, occurs in infants, which is characterized by the development of a generalized bullous eruption.[apps.who.int]
  • And Redness Discharge From The Penis Low Sperm Count Scalded Skin Syndrome Hydrocele Testicular Disorders Hydrosalpinx Skin Disease Abscesses and Boil Hydrosalpinx Abnormal Growth In Breast Tissue Dead Sperm Counts Difficulty Becoming Pregnant Skin Eruptions[dollyhamshealth.com]
Neonate-Onset
  • Here, we reported a 3-year old Chinese boy with neonatal-onset rash and multiple serious Staphylococcus aureus infections including recurrent skin abscesses, liver abscess, sepsis, and destructive pulmonary infection (pneumonia, multiple pulmonary abscesses[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Headache
  • The headaches typically change intensity with position and disappear shortly after getting out of bed.[livestrong.com]
  • Patients with more severe food poisoning have bloody mucus in the vomitus and stools, as well as muscle cramps, headache, and sweating. The acute phase commonly lasts 4 to 6 hours, and recovery is complete within 1 or 2 days.[histopathology-india.net]
  • If the food poisoning is severe, a person may experience headaches, muscle aches, and blood pressure changes. The Evolution of Antibiotic-Resistant Staph Antibiotics are used widely to treat infections such as those caused by staph.[humanillnesses.com]
  • TOXIC SHOCK Toxic shock syndrome is a life-threatening infection characterized by severe headache , sore throat , fever as high as 105 F (40.5 C), and a sunburn-like rash that spreads from the face to the rest of the body. Symptoms appear suddenly.[healthofchildren.com]
  • Toxic shock syndrome is a life-threatening infection characterized by severe headache , sore throat, fever as high as 105 F, and a sunburn-like rash that spreads from the face to the rest of the body.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Workup

  • […] immediate transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), when possible Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): For all patients with catheter-related S aureus bacteremia (and no contraindications); for all patients with suspected S aureus endocarditis See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Treponema Pallidum
  • Abstract The toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has gained importance as a major mammalian receptor for lipoproteins derived from the cell wall of a variety of bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Borrelia Burgdorferi
  • Abstract The toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has gained importance as a major mammalian receptor for lipoproteins derived from the cell wall of a variety of bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • There was no abnormal auditory brainstem response or serum creatinine change associated with ABK treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Age and DM are independent risk factors of poor prognosis for glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Staph Infection Prognosis When mild and promptly treated with antibiotics, the prognosis for recovery from a Staph infection is excellent. However, a MRSA infection can have an entirely different outlook.[onhealth.com]
  • Prognosis Most healthy people who develop staph infections recover fully within a short time. Others develop repeated infections. Some become seriously ill, requiring long-term therapy or emergency care. A small percentage die.[healthofchildren.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology Pathophysiology S. aureus is a gram-positive organism which is both coagulase- and catalse-positive. The organisms provide a number of toxins ( Table I ), which are responsible for the clinical manifestations of disease. Table I.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Osteomyelitis: etiology, diagnosis, treatment and outcome in a public versus a private institution. Infection. 2001;29:333–6. 22. Bamberger DM. Diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis. Comp Ther. 2000;26:89–95. 23.[aafp.org]

Epidemiology

  • Therefore, a study was conducted to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and economic outcomes of SI following these operations in France based on a hospital discharge database.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Many neonates are colonized with S aureus within the first postnatal week. Thereafter, up to 50% of healthy individuals carry at least one strain of S aureus in the anterior nares at any given time.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • The physician will be requested to send the isolate to CDC for microbiologic and epidemiologic evaluation.[cdc.gov]
  • . ‡ Assistant resident, Department of Internal Medicine, King County Hospital System, Seattle, Washington; formerly, epidemiologic intelligence officer, United States Public Health Service. § Associate professor of medicine, Johns Hopkins University School[nejm.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Systematic review of the literature revealed a few interesting cases of reactivated staphylococcal infection after decades of latency, although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms still need to be elucidated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology Pathophysiology S. aureus is a gram-positive organism which is both coagulase- and catalse-positive. The organisms provide a number of toxins ( Table I ), which are responsible for the clinical manifestations of disease. Table I.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Genomewide analysis of gene expression in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: insights into the pathophysiology of S. epidermidis biofilms and the role of phenol-soluble modulins in formation of biofilms . J. Infect. Dis. 191 , 289–298 (2005). 21.[nature.com]
  • Ringel-Kulka, Microbiota of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Infancy, The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, 10.1016/B978-0-12-804024-9.00003-3, (27-35), (2017). Wei-ping Zeng, Margaret M.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • In this article, effective procedures for the prevention of hospital-acquired staphylococcal infections are summarized, with special emphasis on cost-saving measures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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