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Staphylococcal Pneumonia


Presentation

  • Most of the patients presented comorbidities, of which diabetes mellitus was the most common. Twelve patients presented complications such as empyema and septic shock. Four patients died, translating to a mortality rate of 16.6% in our sample.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fever (97%) and respiratory distress (83%) were the most common symptoms at the initial presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cough and fever were present in almost all patients at the time of presentation. Tachypnoea, recession, dullness, and crepitations were commonly elicited signs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two patients presented septic shock associated with AKI.[scielo.br]
  • Misleading presentation of staphylococcal pneumonia in an adolescent girl: a case report Abstract S. aureus is a relatively uncommon causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia.[jpnim.com]
Fever
  • Fever and signs of pleural effusion and respiratory distress were common in primary disease while fever and a toxic appearance were frequent with disseminated illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The use of surgical drainage was not associated with a decrease in the duration of fever or length of hospital stay. The mortality rate has improved but remains significant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fever (97%) and respiratory distress (83%) were the most common symptoms at the initial presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chills
  • This form is very hard, with fever and chills. There are severe pain in sternum, shortness of breath. Chest x-ray shows the infiltration of the pulmonary tissue. After the abscess burst into a bronchus.[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]
  • This results in the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid leaked from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and result in impaired oxygen transportation.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • You may have septic arthritis if you are experiencing: pain and swelling in your joint stiffness red and tender skin around the joint a temperature over 38 C chills a loss of movement in your joint Sepsis Sepsis is also known as blood poisoning.[healthdirect.gov.au]
  • Chills may occur in response to the rise in body temperature, and hot flashes may occur in older persons or those with weakened immune systems in response to the decrease in body temperature.[livestrong.com]
Malaise
  • Army Hospital, Landstuhl, on January 4, 1954, with the chief complaints of fever and malaise for three days. Aside from a mild chronic cough she had been well until January 1, when there was an onset of fatigue, chilliness and FULL TEXT[annals.org]
  • The symptoms of staphylococcal pneumonia: the increase in body temperature; General malaise, chills, muscle weakness; may experience pain in the throat; cough, may be blood admixtures in sputum; pain in the sternum during coughing or deep breathing; severe[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]
  • […] fever, malaise, headache, sore throat Streptococcus pyogenes untreated pharyngitis, inflammation of heart valves, heart muscles, joints, and blood vessels and kidneys strawberry red tongue red rash that spreadsStrep pyogenes sore throat, malaise, headache[quizlet.com]
  • The elderly may present with mainly systemic complaints of malaise, fatigue, anorexia and myalgia. Young children may present with nonspecific symptoms or abdominal pain.[patient.info]
Rigor
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection . [1] Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia ) Dyspnea – shortness of breath[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Sweats, rigors and chills were reported by three, seven and six patients respectively. One patient described a preceding flu-like illness. Five patients, whose ages ranged from 57 to 88 years, were acutely confused at presentation.[nzma.org.nz]
  • Initial mild headache and myalgia leading to high fever, chills and repeated rigors; non-chest symptoms often predominate early on. Cough is nearly always present, initially unproductive but may lead to expectoration later.[patient.info]
Cough
  • He had presented with cough for one month and respiratory difficulty for one-week duration and history of bilious vomiting two days prior to admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cough and fever were present in almost all patients at the time of presentation. Tachypnoea, recession, dullness, and crepitations were commonly elicited signs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The symptoms of staphylococcal pneumonia: the increase in body temperature; General malaise, chills, muscle weakness; may experience pain in the throat; cough, may be blood admixtures in sputum; pain in the sternum during coughing or deep breathing; severe[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]
  • Aside from a mild chronic cough she had been well until January 1, when there was an onset of fatigue, chilliness and FULL TEXT[annals.org]
Pleural Effusion
  • So radiological finding of pleural effusion with displacement of mediastinum to the left and the presence of bowel gas high in the right upper quadrant should alert the possibility of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chest X-ray findings on admission or during hospitalisation included pleural effusion (75%), pneumothorax (47%), and abscess and/or pneumatocele (39%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fever and signs of pleural effusion and respiratory distress were common in primary disease while fever and a toxic appearance were frequent with disseminated illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chest X-rays showed unilateral consolidation in 14 cases, bilateral consolidation in 10, pleural effusion in 15, rapid radiological progression of pulmonary lesions in 14, cavitation in 6 and pneumothorax in 1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Initial chest radiographs revealed empyema, pleural effusion, or pyopneumothorax in 67 patients. A further 26 patients developed such changes on subsequent chest radiographs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspnea
  • Staphylococci cause necrotizing pneumonitis empyema, pneumatoceles, pyopneumothorax, bronchopleural fistulas diffuse interstitial disease characterized by extreme dyspnea, tachypnea, and cyanosis. Clinical Manifestations.[medicalpptonline.blogspot.com]
  • The most common symptoms are dyspnea, fever, cough and pleuritic chest pain accompanied by leukocytosis and bacteremia. (23) Hemoptysis, also observed by some authors, (8) is an uncommon finding.[scielo.br]
  • Other distinguishing symptoms include a relentless and deep cough and shortness of breath, called dyspnea. Sometimes natural breathing rhythms bring on bouts of wheezing and coughing, especially when inhaling air or taking deep breaths.[livestrong.com]
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection . [1] Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia ) Dyspnea – shortness of breath[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Acute onset, severe symptoms of systemic poisoning, chills, high fever, cough, purulent sputum, pus and blood stasis, dyspnea, and cyanosis. 2. The condition develops rapidly, changes in consciousness, paralysis, coma and even shock.[healthfrom.com]
Productive Cough
  • Bacterial pneumonias often have a sudden onset with productive cough, fever, chills and chest-wall pain.[health-information.advanceweb.com]
  • The patient will present with an abrupt onset of fever, tachypnea, pleuritic chest pain, and a productive cough with purulent sputum, which can be blood-tinged. S. aureus is also one of the most common causes of empyema.[visualdx.com]
  • Pain in the chest and dry or productive cough are present. Blood in sputum is always present in staph pneumonia. An abscess can also form with staph lung infection. Staphylococcus pneumonia is a serious complication of influenza.[simple-remedies.com]
Tachypnea
  • Results of physical examination may, , be misleading, in young infants, with findings disproportionate to the degree of tachypnea. Diagnosis. Recognizing early staphylococcal pneumonia in infants is often difficult.[medicalpptonline.blogspot.com]
  • The patient will present with an abrupt onset of fever, tachypnea, pleuritic chest pain, and a productive cough with purulent sputum, which can be blood-tinged. S. aureus is also one of the most common causes of empyema.[visualdx.com]
  • Characteristic features include fever and spasms of dry coughing, followed by marked tachypnea with expiratory grunting, sternal retraction, cyanosis, progressive lethargy, and shock.[histopathology-india.net]
Bilious Vomiting
  • He had presented with cough for one month and respiratory difficulty for one-week duration and history of bilious vomiting two days prior to admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chest Pain
  • We report a case of a 13-year-old girl without predisposing factors who was admitted with a recent history of mild chest pain, weakness and slight fever.[jpnim.com]
  • Chest Pain Chest pain occurs when pneumonia develops, as the lungs work harder to breathe. Additionally, chest muscles become sore from the persistent cough.[livestrong.com]
  • The most common symptoms are dyspnea, fever, cough and pleuritic chest pain accompanied by leukocytosis and bacteremia. (23) Hemoptysis, also observed by some authors, (8) is an uncommon finding.[scielo.br]
  • One person died at home suddenly; the other patients' presenting symptoms were cough with bloody sputum, fever, and pleuritic chest pain. Chest films showed extensive bilateral opacities.[pulmccm.org]
Cyanosis
  • Staphylococci cause necrotizing pneumonitis empyema, pneumatoceles, pyopneumothorax, bronchopleural fistulas diffuse interstitial disease characterized by extreme dyspnea, tachypnea, and cyanosis. Clinical Manifestations.[medicalpptonline.blogspot.com]
  • […] pneumonia: the increase in body temperature; General malaise, chills, muscle weakness; may experience pain in the throat; cough, may be blood admixtures in sputum; pain in the sternum during coughing or deep breathing; severe shortness of breath, wheezing; cyanosis[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]
  • Characteristic features include fever and spasms of dry coughing, followed by marked tachypnea with expiratory grunting, sternal retraction, cyanosis, progressive lethargy, and shock.[histopathology-india.net]
  • Acute onset, severe symptoms of systemic poisoning, chills, high fever, cough, purulent sputum, pus and blood stasis, dyspnea, and cyanosis. 2. The condition develops rapidly, changes in consciousness, paralysis, coma and even shock.[healthfrom.com]
Tachycardia
  • On examination, he was febrile and had tachycardia (Pulse- 104/min) and tachypnoea (Resp- 34/min). Clinically, he had crepts in both lower lobes and right middle lobe with decreased breath sounds.[ijpmonline.org]
  • The most important and distinctive clinical sign is bleeding from the respiratory tract and also hypotension, tachycardia ( 140 beats/min), and digestive symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.[criticalcare.imedpub.com]

Workup

  • Diagnostic workup typically includes chest X-rays, and blood and sputum cultures. In up to 65 percent of cases, the organism that is causing pneumonia is not identified.[health-information.advanceweb.com]
Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • ., lesions are characterized by multiple, peripheral pulmonary infiltrates, bacterial emboli caused by multiple pulmonary arterial embolism, resulting in multiple purulent inflammation of the lungs, and then tissue necrosis and multiple lung abscess,[healthfrom.com]
Mediastinal Shift
  • Reversal of the mediastinal shift and closure of the bronchopleural fistulae was achieved by assisted independent lung ventilation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cavitary Lesion
  • Eight developed cavitary lesions in their lungs. The average length of hospital stay was 40 days. One patient died and six developed complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Microscopic sections of the lungs demonstrated extensive necrotizing pneumonia with abscess formation, coagulative necrosis, destruction of lung parenchyma, and red blood cell extravasation with multiple foci of Gram-positive bacteria colonies seen in[nature.com]
  • Etiology Staphylococcal pneumonia is caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus sp. S. aureus is responsible for most cases of staphylococcal bronchopneumonia.[radiologykey.com]
  • Erythromycin is effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria; its effectiveness against staphylococci may be reduced by the development of antibiotic resistance [ 79 ].[journals.plos.org]
Blood Culture Positive
  • Under these conditions, blood culture positivity tends to be higher, making blood culture an effective instrument in diagnosis.[scielo.br]
  • Of the 13 ICU patients, nine had multifocal consolidation on their admission CXR, 8 had blood cultures positive for S. aureus and 4 died in hospital. Overall in-hospital mortality was 16% (n 7/44).[nzma.org.nz]
  • culture: positive rate is high, pleural effusion culture: also easy to culture to Staphylococcus.[healthfrom.com]
Pleural Effusion
  • So radiological finding of pleural effusion with displacement of mediastinum to the left and the presence of bowel gas high in the right upper quadrant should alert the possibility of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chest X-ray findings on admission or during hospitalisation included pleural effusion (75%), pneumothorax (47%), and abscess and/or pneumatocele (39%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fever and signs of pleural effusion and respiratory distress were common in primary disease while fever and a toxic appearance were frequent with disseminated illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chest X-rays showed unilateral consolidation in 14 cases, bilateral consolidation in 10, pleural effusion in 15, rapid radiological progression of pulmonary lesions in 14, cavitation in 6 and pneumothorax in 1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Initial chest radiographs revealed empyema, pleural effusion, or pyopneumothorax in 67 patients. A further 26 patients developed such changes on subsequent chest radiographs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Rub
  • Signs: tachypnoea, bronchial breathing, crepitations, pleural rub, dullness with percussion.[patient.info]

Treatment

  • Treatment of this condition by closed intercostal catheter drainage was effective. Pneumatoceles were encountered, but resolved spontaneously.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment with antibiotics and drainage of empyema resulted in a good outcome in the majority of cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Despite treatment with high dose cloxacillin together with supportive chemotherapy, progressive deterioration of lung function occurred and acute respiratory failure developed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia with linezolid or vancomycin: a systematic review and meta-analysis Source: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects - DARE - 13 November 2013 Treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia with linezolid or vancomycin[evidence.nhs.uk]
  • Despite appropriate antibiotic treatment mortality in staphylococcal pneumonia remains high.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Septic lesions outside the respiratory tract pericarditis, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and metastatic abscesses in soft tissue Prognosis. mortality still ranges from 10-30% Factors the length of illness before hospitalization age of the patient, adequacy[medicalpptonline.blogspot.com]
  • The prognosis for this form of the disease is usually favorable. After treatment recovery occurs, however, in the former destructions (cavities) can form air cysts. Staphylococcal infiltration is severe, with pronounced intoxication.[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]
  • Prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1996;275(2):134-41. [ Links ] 29. Gorak EJ, Yamada SM, Brown JD.[scielo.br]
  • Treatment and prognosis Treatment depends on the underlying agent while prognosis depends on the severity of the pathogen as well as the susceptibility of the host.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Prognosis Mortality from CAP is less than 1% in those well enough to be managed in the community. [ 16 ] The mortality rate in patients admitted to hospital is 5-10% in those not requiring intensive care unit admission, as high as 25% in intubated patients[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Staphylococcal etiology should be suspected in patients with acute pneumonia who have soft tissue infection or have characteristic chest roentgenogram findings; antistaphylococcal agents should be included in the therapeutic regimens of such patients[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of pneumonia caused by S. aureus is similar to that of pneumonia caused by other etiological agents. Radiological findings, epidemiological data and risk factors provide important clues to the diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Among patients with severe CAP, staphylococcal infection is one of the most common etiologies. It is a high-risk disease, even when it affects young or previously healthy patients.[scielo.br]
  • English : BL blood CF cerebrospinal fluid CI chemically induced CL classification CO complications CN congenital DI diagnosis DG diagnostic imaging DH diet therapy DT drug therapy EC economics EM embryology EN enzymology EP epidemiology EH ethnology ET etiology[decs.bvs.br]
  • While triple therapy of this condition may not be ideal, the employment of this combination is considered justified until a satisfactory etiologic diagnosis can be obtained or until antibiotic sensitivity tests are completed.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

Epidemiology

  • This retrospective study of cases diagnosed over a 20 year period at a tertiary paediatric hospital was undertaken to document the epidemiology and assess the management and mortality of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Radiological findings, epidemiological data and risk factors provide important clues to the diagnosis. These factors are important for clinical suspicion, since S. aureus is not typically addressed in empirical treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • : 68 Allowable Qualifiers English : BL blood CF cerebrospinal fluid CI chemically induced CL classification CO complications CN congenital DI diagnosis DG diagnostic imaging DH diet therapy DT drug therapy EC economics EM embryology EN enzymology EP epidemiology[decs.bvs.br]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology [ edit ] Bacteria typically enter the lung with inhalation, though they can reach the lung through the bloodstream if other parts of the body are infected.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Recognition of this prevented inappropriate management. The patient also developed the toxic shock syndrome. In contrast to infants with pneumatoceles, recovery of lung function has been poor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early diagnosis on the basis of clinical symptoms and signs and institution of therapy without awaiting radiological or bacteriological confirmation are necessary to prevent development of empyema and to reduce the mortality rate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] diet therapy DT drug therapy EC economics EM embryology EN enzymology EP epidemiology EH ethnology ET etiology GE genetics HI history IM immunology ME metabolism MI microbiology MO mortality NU nursing PS parasitology PA pathology PP physiopathology PC prevention[decs.bvs.br]
  • To avoid diseases you must adhere to preventive measures. Monitor personal hygiene (wash hands with soap and water to kill various micro-organisms on the skin surface).[respiratory.vsebolezni.com]
  • Staph Infection in Lungs Treatment Process and Preventive Measures Preventive measures: it is very important to strengthen the immune system of the person especially in high risk groups.[simple-remedies.com]

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