Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a potentially lethal complication of a Staphylococcus aureus infection. Caused by a toxin emitted by the bacterium, rather than actual bacterial components, this syndrome leads to broad regions of exfoliating skin and is mainly observed in immunocompromised patients, newborns, infants and young children. SSSS is also known as Ritter's disease.
The first lesions are formed superficially and with crust. In the following 24 hour period, erythema and localized pain begin to appear, alongside a sensitivity of the skin in the affected region and a transparent appearance. This clinical manifestation develops in distant regions as well and within the next 24 hours, fluid-filled blisters (bullae) emerge, which easily cleave, causing a scalded appearance and a sheet-like exfoliation of the epidermis. The patients are many times positive for the Nikolsky sign, which involves the application of gentle pressure in non-bullous locations and the subsequent rapid formation of a blister, as the superficial epidermis can be easily dislodged.
Bullae tend to form in intertriginous areas, such as the groin, armpits, buttocks, etc. and systemic complications (fever, fatigue, chills, lethargy) arise within 36-72 hours after the onset of the original infection . Electrolyte imbalance, dehydration and sepsis are direct results of the impairment of the skin fortification caused by SSSS.
Entire Body System
SSSS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised adult patients with sudden onset of high fever and erythema. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Comprehensive review of morbidity and mortality trends for rheumatic fever, streptococcal disease, and scarlet fever: the decline of rheumatic fever. Rev Infect Dis. 1989;11(6):928–953. [healio.com]
Social improvements and hygiene have led to a dramatic fall in the number of cases of SSSS. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms may include any of the following: Blisters Fever Large areas of skin peel or fall away (exfoliation or desquamation) Painful skin Redness of the skin ( erythema ), which spreads to cover most of the body Skin slips off with gentle pressure, leaving [nlm.nih.gov]
It’s more common in the summer and fall. What causes SSSS in a child? It’s usually caused by an infection with a type of Staphylococcal aureas bacteria. The bacteria release poison (toxins) that cause the skin to blister and peel. [stlouischildrens.org]
Neonates and young infants are particularly susceptible to a lack of the protective skin barrier, which may cause excessive protein and fluid losses, hypothermia and secondary infection. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] prevent pain and damage to the skin Provide constant environmental temperature where possible (30-32° is optimum) Temperature regulation is compromised due to extensive skin loss Monitor core temperature closely Skin temperature is unreliable; at risk of hypothermia [starship.org.nz]
Secondary infections, sepsis, hypothermia, electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, pneumonia. Scarring does not occur in SSSS since the cleavage plane is so superficial. [clinicaladvisor.com]
Complications include sepsis, secondary infections, electrolyte imbalances, fluid losses, and hypothermia. Compared with TEN, the higher blister cleavage plane in SSSS confers a better prognosis, causing less water loss and temperature instability. [healio.com]
- Pediatric Disease
In adults, clinical features are similar to those of the typical pediatric disease, but blood cultures are often positive for Staphylococcus aureus. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
We report a 38-year-old HIV-1 seropositive intravenous drug abuser who developed SSSS due to staphylococcal pneumonia. An exfoliating toxin-releasing Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II type 3C, was isolated from the sputum and from blood cultures. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia Food poisoning Toxic shock syndrome Blood poisoning (bacteremia) Skin infections are the most common. [icdlist.com]
[…] adults at risk usually have underlying immune compromise Associated Staphylococcus aureus conditions children preceding respiratory tract infection preceding conjunctivitis preceding otitis media adults renal dysfunction immunocompromise septic arthritis pneumonia [medbullets.com]
Stomatitis, rhinitis and corneal ulcers have been reported. In uncomplicated cases there is usually no fever but secondary infections such as-subcutaneous abscesses, pyoderma, gangrenous lesions, and bronchopneumonia are frequently observed. [skindiseaselist.blogspot.com]
Jaw & Teeth
- Strawberry Tongue
Erythematous macules and petechiae (Forschheimer’s spots) may be present on the palate, as well as a “white strawberry tongue” that sloughs to become a “red strawberry tongue.” 38,39 The rash of scarlet fever is characterized by blanchable, confluent, [healio.com]
Pharyngitis, cervical adenitis, strawberry tongue, or palatal petechiae were not seen. Nikolsky’s sign was negative. Healing was by coarse desquamation over a period of five or ten days. The male to female ration was 1.5:1. [cirp.org]
Bullous impetigo is at the mild end of a spectrum of blistering skin diseases caused by a staphylococcal exfoliative toxin that, at the other extreme, is represented by widespread painful blistering and superficial denudation (the staphylococcal scalded [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
There is a generalized tender erythema which commences on the head and neck, accompanied by fever, irritability, continuous cry and miserable look. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] is followed by diffuse, confluent erythema with bullae, which rupture easily. [pcds.org.uk]
- Nikolsky's Sign
2012/13/1/51/102818 Sir, Nikolsky's sign is an easily inducible and a valuable sign in clinical dermatology. [ijpd.in]
The erythema is followed by cleavage of the upper epidermis in a large sheets mainly in the head, neck and the flexures, with formation of bullae (Nikolsky sign). It is most common in infants and children under 5 years. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Skin Lesion
Skin lesions on the upper thighs with superficial epidermal peeling and a periumbilical skin lesion with exudative erosions, 24 hours after onset of disease. [pediatrics.aappublications.org]
No similar skin lesions were noticed in other infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Exfoliation of the Skin
We report a case of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) in a 65-year-old healthy woman. Fever, purulent conjunctivitis, and exfoliation of the skin in the gluteal region were noted. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
There is marked epidermal exfoliation with the skin peeling off in sheets leaving exposed moist, bright-red, tender areas The Nikolsky sign (gentle stroking of the skin causes the skin to separate at the epidermis) is positive SSSS differs from the more [pcds.org.uk]
Clinical Features Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce exfoliative toxins. [starship.org.nz]
It is a syndrome of acute exfoliation of the skin typically following an erythematous cellulitis. [emedicine.com]
Face, Head & Neck
- Facial Redness
Posterior Blepharitis • Inflammation of eyelids secondary to dysfunction of meibomian glands • Associations – Rosacea • Facial redness – Demodex mites • Affinity for hair follicles 18. [slideshare.net]
- Kidney Failure
Adult SSSS is usually associated with immunosuppression, overwhelming sepsis, and kidney failure. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
It rarely occurs in older people except for those with kidney failure or a weakened immune system. Symptoms of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome begin with an isolated area of another skin infection called impetigo. [merckmanuals.com]
- Renal Insufficiency
His underlying leukemia, immunosuppressive drugs, disseminated varicella, S. aureus colonization, and acute renal insufficiency were all contributing factors that were pathogenetically linked in the development of his generalized SSSS. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
SSSS is diagnosed mainly clinically , but in order for a definitive diagnosis to be established, a biopsy needs to be harvested. A thorough histological examination will reveal a non-inflammatory superficial breach of the epidermis, which distinguishes SSSS from another complication of a staphylococcal infection, toxic epidermal necrolysis. Cultures can also be harvested from areas of possible primary infection, but they are not of much use, as they are often negative. No culture should be harvested from the bullae themselves, because they are sterile.
- Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, a generalized exfoliative dermatitis complicating infections by exfoliative toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, is rarely observed in adults. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
SSSS is caused by the exfoliative toxins (epidermolytic toxins A and B) of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. [pcds.org.uk]
Upon the diagnosis of SSSS or increased clinical suspicion, beta-lactamase resistant anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials must be promptly administered IV .
Therapeutic schemes and dosages include:
- Newborns: nafcillin 12.5 - 25 mg/kg IV q 6 h (weight should be >2kg)
- Children: nafcillin 25 to 50 mg/kg
The schemes above are given until some improvement is observed. Once this has been achieved, administration of the following is required:
- Infants and children with a weight <20 kg: cloxacillin, 12.5 mg/kg q 6 h per os 
- Older children: cloxacillin 250 to 500 mg q 6 h per os
Vancomycin should be chosen when there is a high suspicion of infection with Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Corticosteroids are strictly contraindicated . Demulcent lotions can also be applied to prevent further dehydration from the ruptured epidermis.
In cases of great severity, with extensive damage, ulcerations and epidermolysis, the treatment followed is the exact same one as for burns (hydrolyzed polymer gel dressings).
The mortality rate of SSSS in children is 4% and mainly depends on the extent of the affected skin . It is easily treated, with the bullae responding well to antimicrobial medications and absence of scarring . The syndrome poses risks for newborn patients, as their treatment is certainly more challenging. In cases of adult SSSS, prognosis is not as favorable, with mortality rates being as high as 60%.
S. aureus is a part of the skin's natural flora, colonizing the nasal cavity, the conjunctival regions and many other regions . While it does not always cause infections, it is potentially pathogenic, leading to:
- Impetigo 
- Inflammation of the conjunctiva, styes
- Infections in wounds and other skin conditions (eg. eczema )
S. aureus is classified as a commensal organism and in order for the body to maintain such a relationship with a potential pathogen, the immune system must be mature. The pathogen's toxins are also excreted via the kidneys. This is why SSSS is common mainly amongst children, whose immune system has not fully developed yet, and adults with immunodeficiency, immunosuppression or renal failure.
Staphylococci can be transmitted through simple skin contact, saliva or objects touched by a person colonized with it, naturally even in the absence of an active infection.
The greater majority of patients (98%) affected by SSSS involves newborns and children younger than 6 years old. Mortality rates are relatively low, estimated around 1-5% in young patients and death usually occurs due to another coexisting condition or septic phenomena. It is rarely observed in adults, but patients that do develop the syndrome run a high risk of succumbing to it, with adult mortality rates being astoundingly high, approximately 60%. In adults, increased mortality rates can be explained by a higher probability of underlying pathologies, sepsis, electrolyte imbalance and severe dehydration caused by the scalded skin. Incidence has been calculated between 0-09-0.13/1.000.000 individuals .
In general, the adult population has developed a greater amount of antibodies against the exfoliating exotoxin responsible for the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, in contradistinction to younger individuals whose immune system is not fully matured. Therefore, newborns or young children are more prone to an SSSS. Furthermore, the kidneys also mediate the toxin's excretion from the organism; should a patient suffer from renal failure, higher concentrations of the toxins are accumulated, making a staphylococcal infection and its complications a lot more probable.
Children of both sexes are affected equally, whereas adult males tend to be affected twice as much as adult women.
The staphylococcus aureus bacterium is an organism found in many locations of the human body, including the skin, nasal cavities and eyes. It can be a pathogenic organism with various mechanisms, which, among others, involve the release of specific toxins.
The type A and B toxins released from 5% of the various staphylococcal strains are responsible for the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. They assume a protease-like function, impairing the adhesion capacity of desmosomes, by attacking desmoglein-1 ; the latter is one of the adhesive proteins involved in the attachment of one epidermal cell to another. In this way, epithelial cellular bonds are destroyed and bullae are allowed to form, alongside skin epidermolysis.
Common locations from which the original infection arises include the umbilicus, nose or oral cavity . The ETA and ETB toxins are released from the microorganism and are transferred to distant locations via the bloodstream, or act locally; thus, they cause a breach of the epidermis beneath the granular cell layer. It is believed that the two possibilities of toxin transfer characterize two different types of SSSS: the regional (localized) form, where the bullae center around the original site of infection and a widespread form, where the bullae form at distant locations, when compared to their site of origination, due to hematogenous transfer.
S. aureus subtypes 3A, 3B, 3C, 55 and 71 belong to the phage lytic IIS group and were believed to be the ones exclusively responsible for the production of the exfoliating exotoxins. During the last years, it has been clarified that all phage groups can produce the ETA and ETB toxins.
Following basic hygienic measures helps to eliminate primary staphylococcal infections and is the first step towards preventing the onset of a dangerous complication such as SSSS. Secondly, any diagnosed staphylococcal infections should be treated prudently and promptly, in order to limit the extent of the infection. Lastly, in cases of immunosuppressed patients or other patients running an increased risk of developing SSSS, carriers of the bacterium should be diagnosed and treated prophylactically.
The staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is caused by the bacterium S. aureus. It is a result of infection with certain bacterial strains that are capable of producing the exfoliating exotoxin and arises as a complication of the primary infection. Clinical manifestations include soft bullae commonly located on intertriginous areas of the body, which are followed by erythema and are easily cleaved, causing skin exfoliation and a scalded appearance. Usually, a 48-hour period suffices for the bullae to develop to the full extent and broad regions of the body are affected. The patients can also be positive for Nikolsky sign.
The exfoliating staphylococcal exotoxin, which is responsible for SSSS, adversely affects the desmosomal function: it destroys the desmoglein-1 complex, namely the complex responsible for the adhesion of epithelial cells, thus creating a breach which leads to the formation of bullae. SSSS is a severer, more generalized form of bullous impetigo, also caused by a staphylococcal infection and it is believed that the development of SSSS or bullous impetigo is directly dependent on the concentration of the released toxin and its potential systematic spread.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a complication primarily affecting newborn, infants and children rather than adults, with the reported cases amongst the adult population being estimated at circa 50. Although in adults it is associated with immunosuppression and renal failure, there are subgroups of patients who are completely disease-free, other than the staphylococcal infection. Mortality rates are relatively low for young individuals (circa 4%), but extremely high for adults (60%) .
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a potentially lethal complication of a bacterial infection with specific strains of staphylococcus. It is most commonly observed in newborn children, infants and young children, as well as people with kidney failure or a weak immune system due to an underlying condition or treatment with certain drugs. SSSS causes blisters in the skin, which rupture, leading to exfoliation and a scalded appearance.
SSSS is caused by strains of the S. aureus bacterium which produce a specific toxin called exfoliating toxin. These toxins attack the proteins that are responsible for the bonds between the skin cells; in this way, cells are no longer connected to each other, fluid finds its way through the surface from the lower layers of the skin and blisters form. These blisters rupture easily and the skin peels off in sheets. The very same toxin that causes SSSS, also causes a similar condition called bullous impetigo, believed by many to be a different aspect of the SSS syndrome.
What are the common symptoms of SSSS?
Given that SSSS is in fact an infection, it starts with a fever and reddish skin. Blisters start to form after a day. Other possible symptoms include the formation of crust on the infection site, pain, weakness and a positive Nikolsky sign. The Nikolsky sign is a simple test, where gentle pressure and rubbing are exerted in an area of the skin (usually one that lies over a bone) and this procedure results in the prompt formation of a blister.
After the skin has started to exfoliate, the symptoms that may still persist are usually fever, chills and weakness.
Newborns often exhibit primary infections in the diaper area or around the umbilical cord. Older children often exhibit such lesions on their arms, legs, and trunk.
How is SSSS diagnosed?
A physician will diagnose SSSS based on the clinical manifestations. A detailed medical history, clinical examination, blood tests and possibly a biopsy taken from the site of the suspected infection will help your doctor establish a definite diagnosis of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.
Most patients recover quickly from SSSS, children in particular. Treatment details always depend on the age and general health status of the patient. Usually all patients require hospitalization in order to treat the complication and are first treated with antibiotics administered intravenously, followed by medication taken orally. Patients also receive supportive treatment, such as fluids, painkillers if needed, and soothing lotions to minimize dehydration through the exfoliated skin. Physiotherapy is also an option from which several patients can benefit a lot, because SSSS commonly affects the flexures, leading to a self-imposed immobility when patients feel uncomfortable walking.
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