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Staphylococcus Aureus

Micrococcus Pyogenes


Presentation

  • This case report presents a child with atraumatic right groin pain, which was initially diagnosed as a muscular sprain. The patient later re-presented out of hours to the Emergency Department with what was found to be extensive pelvic abscesses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A detailed review of the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of the staphylococcal hemolysins is also presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Typification of strains through PFGE and spa-typing revealed that some carriers present the same strain, whereas others present different strains along the period of persistence. Almost all strains induced a strong biofilm formation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 36-year-old man presented with a cardiac device-related S. aureus endocarditis and received long-term therapy with dalbavancin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we report the case of a 64-year old woman presenting with chills, pain and swelling of her right foot with dark maculae at the sole, and elevated inflammatory markers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lymphocyte Disorder
  • Clonal expansion of lymphocytes bearing the γδ T-cell receptor in a patient with large granular lymphocyte disorder. Blood 74 : 285 Pannetier, C., J. P. Levraud, A. Lim, J. Even, and P. Kourilsky. 1996.[doi.org]
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
  • RESULTS: Indications for ECMO were refractory hypoxia and left ventricular dysfunction associated with right ventricular dilatation. Patients were weaned off ECMO after 52 and 5 days. No ECMO-related hemorrhagic complication was observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Knee Pain
  • He developed bilateral knee pain requiring washout. His right knee synovial biopsy cultured S. aureus He continued treatment with linezolid for 6 weeks until his C reactive protein was 0.8 ng/L.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hip Pain
  • A high index of suspicion of iliopsoas abscess should be maintained among haemodialysis patients presenting with intradialytic pelvic and hip pain and treated with optimal antibiotics therapy with appropriate surgical intervention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysarthria
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 45-year-old Japanese woman who on receiving chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer developed an altered mental status and dysarthria soon after fever from infection of a subcutaneous implantable port.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Altered Mental Status
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 45-year-old Japanese woman who on receiving chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer developed an altered mental status and dysarthria soon after fever from infection of a subcutaneous implantable port.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Encephalopathy
  • BACKGROUND: Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a mild encephalopathy caused by various pathological processes, but encephalopathy due to bacteria is rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Minimizing the workup of blood culture contaminants: implementation and evaluation of a laboratory-based algorithm. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2437-2444. [go to PubMed] 2. Weinstein MP, Towns ML, Quartey SM, et al.[psnet.ahrq.gov]
  • […] progress rapidly Pleural effusion, pneumatoceles, and pneumothorax are also common In oncology patients, S aureus may cause pulmonary nodules [7] Thrombophlebitis Obtain a blood culture through the intravenous line and a peripheral blood culture See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pericardial Effusion
  • He was subsequently found to have bilateral pneumonia and later developed a pericardial effusion and osteomyelitis of the right iliac bone, sacroiliac joint and sacrum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Contact laser treatment caused a focal temperature increase up to 58 C, whereas plasma treatment led a uniform temperature distribution on the disc within safe limits.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After adjustment for confounding variables, no difference between treatment groups was found in treatment failure (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.2; 95% CI, 0.3-4.5), but nafcillin was associated with significantly higher nephrotoxicity (adjusted odds ratio[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • During a median follow-up period of 32 months, treatment failure occurred in 37 (36%) cases. The median time to treatment failure was 113 days, being[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any combinations of topical, inhaled, oral or intravenous antimicrobials with the primary aim of eradicating MRSA compared with placebo, standard treatment or no treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Bacteraemia; Complication; Mortality; Staphylococcus aureus; Treatment failure[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Deterioration of liver function caused LOHF, and LOHF has a poor prognosis, particularly when it is complicated by infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Long-term prognosis for adult cases of NP currently remains undocumented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis in terms of globe salvage is very poor, with most cases usually requiring enucleation or evisceration of the affected eye. Immunosuppression in some form is usually present, which accounts for the aggressive course of the infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • The most frequent etiologies include primary diseases (caused by HIV itself) or secondary diseases (opportunistic infections or neoplasms).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition with a complex and not fully understood etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top six most common etiologic agents of nosocomial, community and livestock acquired bacterial infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human etiologic agent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Conclusion The data suggest that some strains can adapt and colonize new epidemiologically unrelated habitats.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The results would contribute in the understanding of epidemiology related to S. aureus spread and prevention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review describes the latest observations about the structure of SCCmec, the techniques used to study the molecular epidemiology and evolution of S. aureus as well as some challenges that researchers face in the future.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This more accurate and accessible S. aureus typing system may improve surveillance and better inform the epidemiology of this very important pathogen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: The overall prevalence of S. aureus carriage was 20.1% (87/434), which was higher in MLSs than in NMLSs (26.2% vs. 17.4%, P CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insight into the risk factors, molecular epidemiology and virulence gene profiles[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • All efforts by S. aureus to resist neutrophil-mediated killing stress the importance of these mechanisms in the pathophysiology of staphylococcal diseases.[annualreviews.org]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Impaired IL-10 production in response to SEB in NP may exacerbate the pathophysiology of ECRS including eosinophilia and lower airway obstruction. Copyright 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2015 Jul; 28 (3):603-61. [ PMC free article : PMC4451395 ] [ PubMed : 26016486 ] 5. Lowy FD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Thus we must elucidate the mechanisms behind S aureus nasal carriage and infection to be able to develop new preventive strategies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Elimination of carriage appears to be an attractive preventive strategy in patients at risk. Further studies are needed to optimize this strategy and to define the groups at risk.[doi.org]
  • “To date, there is no licensed vaccine available to prevent invasive S. aureus disease.[pfizer.com]
  • Use contact precautions (e.g., procedures to prevent droplet or aerosols). Post signs at the entrance to patient area. Single patient rooms may be used with designated toilets and sinks.[ccohs.ca]

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