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Steroid Atrophy

Steroid atrophy is usually an iatrogenic consequence of using corticosteroids topically. It can occur on the face, axilla, groin or vulva and is characterized by thinning of the skin, atrophy, and formation of striae, as well as, telangiectasias. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and the condition reverses partially if the medication is stopped immediately after the symptoms appear.


Presentation

Steroid atrophy was first described by Epstein et al. in 1963 [1] and is known to occur following the use of topical as well as systemic corticosteroids [2]. Risk factors for the condition include the strength of the steroid formulation prescribed, duration and the frequency of use [2] [3]. Skin areas with a less depth of the dermal layer e.g. on the face and other areas e.g. groin, axilla, and vulva are more susceptible [4] [5] [6] while the palmar and plantar surfaces are less prone [7] to steroid atrophy.

Three stages in steroid atrophy have been reported: the first stage of pre-atrophy, followed by atrophy and the terminal stage of tachyphylaxis [8]. Patients present initially with a burning sensation in the area where the topical steroid is being applied. Continued use of the medication leads to vasoconstriction with a resolution of symptoms [8]. Atrophic thinning of the skin with telangiectasia is more common on the face while striae are more frequently seen in the axilla, groin, and vulva. The disorder is characterized by a transparent, fragile appearance of the skin, dryness, laxity with telangiectasia [9] [10] and an increased tendency for bruising, which has been described as steroid purpura [11].

The condition may improve if the medication is discontinued as soon as the patient presents with symptoms. Otherwise, long-term steroid use leads to irreversible striae and more prominent telangiectasias. Dermatological features of steroid atrophy resemble those of the skin in the elderly. However, steroid atrophy is usually not associated with malignant change while striae are not observed in aging skin.

Rhinitis
  • This case highlights the risks of this form of treatment for allergic rhinitis. Keywords Allergic rhinitis affects up to 20% of the population.[waojournal.biomedcentral.com]
  • Psoriasis vulgaris 25 Mean age (years) 43 (range 22-57) Mean duration of treatment with Group III or IV topical steroids (years) 16 (range 6-25) Localization of skin atrophy: Extremities 40 Face 28 Trunk 12 Concomitant Diseases: Arthritis 7 Hypertonia 6 Rhinitis[llogo.hu]
Sneezing
  • Generally, nasal obstruction is more likely to improve than rhinorrhea or sneezing. It is of interest that most of these randomized trials of depot steroids were undertaken in Denmark.[waojournal.biomedcentral.com]
Strabismus
  • For small hemangiomas around the periorbital area that pose no threat of amblyopia or strabismus, we believe that conservative management may still be the best approach.[healio.com]
Subcutaneous Fat Atrophy
  • Other names given to this finding are linear subcutaneous fat atrophy, perilymphatic atrophy, and linear atrophy of the skin following corticosteroid injections.[healio.com]

Workup

The diagnosis of steroid atrophy is based on the typical clinical appearance of the skin: increased skin transparency, consistency resembling that of a cigarette paper, and increased fragility with a tendency to bruise easily [2]. History will reveal either a short or long-term use of steroids, with symptoms related to the area in which the medication was applied.

As the condition in chronic stage is irreversible and as there is a potential for complications following an invasive procedure, surgical skin biopsies are not routinely performed. But if they are performed then, the following features are noted on histology: flattening of the epidermal-dermal areas [11], diminished epidermal width [10], reduced keratinocyte size [12], decreased number of fibroblasts [12] [13] and narrowing of the lipid lamella of the stratum corneum [14].

Several non-invasive techniques and assays to diagnose the condition have been devised both for clinical and experimental use. Evaporimeter assesses water loss from the transepidermal layer while the loss of cholesterol and fatty acids can be detected with stratum corneum lipid measurement [12]. Skin thinning can be measured using a screw gauge, laser microscope and ultrasound [12] [15]. However, these tests are cumbersome and patients have to use the medication for up to six weeks before results can be obtained [16].

Treatment

  • Excellent results with fat grafting for the treatment of steroid atrophy have been documented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] lead to poor compliance and treatment failure as a result of unnecessary fear.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Before treatment all patients had very thin skin, severe laxity, purpura and echymoses and teleangiectasia. After treatment cure was achieved in all patients except for teleangiectasia in 36 cases.[llogo.hu]
  • Injected volumes of normal saline ranged from 5 to 20 cm3 per treatment session and three to six weekly treatments. The patients were completely satisfied with these results. Conclusion.[medications.com]
  • Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases Drug: Clobetasol propionate 0.05 % ointment Drug: Betamethasone dipropionate 0.064 % ointment Drug: Petrolatum ointment Phase 1 Study Type : Interventional (Clinical[clinicaltrials.gov]

Prognosis

  • I am sorry to tell you that the side effects are having a very bad prognosis. However you can start using Silicone-based creams like Contractubex cream three or four times a day and massage properly in the area for the marks.[icliniq.com]

Etiology

  • […] should be avoided to reduce the risk of severe, persistent, or recurrent tinea infections. 31 Any rash treated with topical steroids that worsens or does not significantly improve should be reevaluated for the possibility of an undiagnosed infectious etiology[aafp.org]

Epidemiology

  • Use of steroids for self-enhancement: an epidemiologic/societal perspective. AIDS Read. 16.P.A. Fricker,Drugs in sport Australian Prescriber Copyright ROmedic: Articolul se află sub protecția drepturilor de autor.[romedic.ro]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Case Overview steroid atrophy Member Rated 0 Patient case no. 2035 Date added 18 May 2003 Patient details Age --Undetermined-- Localisation Lower limbs / feet / soles Primary Lesions Erythema Squames / scales Pustule / non follicular Pathophysiology adverse[dermquest.com]
  • Risk factors for reduced skin thickness and bone density: possible clues regarding pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38(2 Pt 1):248-255. Havill S, Rademaker M.[medsafe.govt.nz]

Prevention

  • You can prevent that easily. And how can you prevent testicular atrophy and testicular sensitivity from developing while you are on a steroid cycle? The answer is simple, you can avoid it by stacking HCG to your steroid cycle.[whatsteroids.com]
  • Moreover, calcipotriol is able to restore betamethasone-impaired HA synthesis in keratinocytes and prevent betamethasone-induced epidermal thinning in minipigs upon treatment with the calcipotriol/betamethasone gel.[genoskin.com]
  • […] by applying pressure with gauze over the injection site as the needle is withdrawn to prevent leakage of corticosteroid along the needle track. 3 Soft tissue atrophy generally appears in 1 to 4 months and resolves 6 to 30 months later. 4 Patients with[mdedge.com]
  • Is there any way to prevent testicular shrinkage for steroid users? The best way to prevent damage is to not use to begin with.[dontcookyourballs.com]
  • Such shrinkage may prevent the spurious diagnosis of cardiomegaly, and the use of more elaborate and hazardous methods such as opaque angiocardiography and cardiac catheterization.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

References

Article

  1. Epstein NN, Epstein WL, Epstein JH. Atrophic striae in patients with inguinal intertrigo. Arch Dermatol. 1963;87: 450–457.
  2. Schoepe S, Schacke H, May E, Asadullah K. Glucocorticoid therapy-induced skin atrophy. Exp Dermatol. 2006;15(6):406–420.
  3. Garbe C, Wolf G. Topische Therapie. In: Braun-FalcoO, PlewigG, WolffH H, BurgdorfW, LandthalerM, eds. Dermatologie und Venerologie. Berlin: Springer, 2005: 1431–1461.
  4. Cornell RC, Stoughton RB. The use of topical steroids in psoriasis. Dermatol Clin 1984;2: 397–408.
  5. Schacke H, Docke WD, Asadullah K. Mechanisms involved in the side effects of glucocorticoids. Pharmacol Ther. 2002;96(1):23–43.
  6. Johnson E, Groben P, Eanes A, et al. Vulvar skin atrophy induced by topical glucocorticoids. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2012 May -Jun; 57(3):296-299
  7. Luger T, Loske KD, Elsner P, et al. Topische Dermatotherapie mit Glukokortikoiden Therapeutischer Index. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2004; 2: 629–634.
  8. Abraham A, Roga G. Topical steroid damaged skin. Indian J Dermatol. 2014 Sept-Oct; 59(5):456-459
  9. Booth BA, Tan EM, Oikarinen A, Uitto J. Steroid-induced dermal atrophy: effects of glucocorticosteroids on collagen metabolism in human skin fibroblast cultures. Int J Dermatol 1982; 21: 333–337.
  10. Mills CM, Marks R. Side effects of topical glucocorticoids. Curr Probl Dermatol 1993; 21: 122–131.
  11. Kimura T, Doi K. Dorsal skin reactions of hairless dogs to topical treatment with corticosteroids. Toxicol Pathol 1999; 27: 528–535.
  12. Kolbe L, Kligman AM, Schreiner V, Stoudemayer T. Corticosteroid-induced atrophy and barrier impairment measured by non-invasive methods in human skin. Skin Res Technol 2001; 7: 73–77.
  13. Saarni H, Hopsu-Havu VK. The decrease of hyaluronate synthesis by anti-inflammatory steroids in vitro. Br J Dermatol 1978; 98: 445–449.
  14. Sheu HM, Lee JY, Chai CY, Kuo KW. Depletion of stratum corneum intercellular lipid lamellae and barrier function abnormalities after long-term topical corticosteroids. Br J Dermatol 1997; 136: 884–890.
  15. Newton JA, Whitaker J, Sohail S, et al. A comparison of pulsed ultrasound, radiography and micrometer screw gauge in the measurement of skin thickness. Curr Med Res Opin 1984; 9: 113–118.
  16. Lehmann P, Zheng P, Lavker RM, Kligman AM. Corticosteroid atrophy in human skin. A study by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. J Invest Dermatol 1983; 81: 169–176.

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Last updated: 2018-06-22 09:33