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Stimulant

Stimulants


Presentation

  • They have been present in Europe since 2007 but are now becoming a burgeoning presence in American hospitals.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, evidence is presented concerning the question of whether prescription stimulants truly enhance cognitive functioning in individuals with and without ADHD, and the ethical and professional implications of these findings are explored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mood disorders were present in 33.6%, and anxiety disorders in 29.6%, with no differences among stimulant use disorder groups. Panic disorder was more frequently present with other stimulant use disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A double-blind procedure is presented for assessing the response to stimulant medication among children with attention deficit disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The results of a series of eight individual case reports in which protriptyline, an activating tricyclic antidepressant, was used as a 'stimulant' medication are presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Constipation
  • Opioids reduce the perception of pain but can also produce drowsiness, mental confusion, euphoria, nausea, constipation, and—depending upon the amount of drug taken—can depress respiration. Opioid misuse represents a unique challenge.[samhsa.gov]
  • The drug also appears to be safe, although some participants in the trial developed minor side effects such as constipation and nausea.[newscientist.com]
  • […] appetite Manic behavior Mood swings Panic attacks Paranoia Restlessness Tachycardia (a rapid heart rate) Tremors or body shakes Weight loss In addition, a dry mouth, unpleasant taste in the mouth, or gastrointestinal disturbances ( nausea , diarrhea , or constipation[drugs.com]
  • […] appetite Manic behavior Mood swings Panic attacks Paranoia Restlessness Tachycardia (a rapid heart rate) Tremors or body shakes Weight loss In addition, a dry mouth, unpleasant taste in the mouth, or gastrointestinal disturbances ( nausea, diarrhea, or constipation[drugs.com]
Hypertension
  • Combined treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and stimulants has been resisted by practitioners because of hypertensive and hyperthermic crises noted in certain cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Since estradiol has two main receptors (ERα and ERβ) we will discuss their relative implications, and present new data showing a key role for ERα to prevent the hypertension induced by intermittent hypoxia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] a tightening in the chest High Temperature/sweating profusely, often with chills Fast Heart Rate, Racing pulse Irregular Breathing or shortness of breath Convulsions Stroke Limb jerking or rigidity Feeling paralyzed but you are awake Severe headache Hypertension[harmreduction.org]
  • Another issue is cocaine and amphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and renal failure. We have legions of these patients now in our ED.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Rare treatment-related cardiovascular events were noted in a longer duration trial of 478 patients with narcolepsy over 40-weeks of modafinil therapy. 26 Most common were palpitations (1.5%), hypertension (1.0%), and tachycardia (1.0%).[acc.org]
Tachycardia
  • She received successful cardioversion with 6 mg of intravenous adenosine, but developed a second episode of possible AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia twelve days after Adderall was reinitiated at half the previous dose.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Stimulant medication may mimic the tachycardia of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He was tremulous, agitated, and pale, with sinus tachycardia ranging from 140 to 160 bpm and normal blood pressure (BP).[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • CNS stimulants have been used for the following conditions: Attention deficit disorder Chronic lethargy Morbid obesity unresponsive to other treatments Narcolepsy Neonatal apnea Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome Prolonged depression that is unresponsive[drugs.com]
Orthostatic Hypotension
  • hypotension, anesthesia-induced hypotension Use: Unlabeled/Investigational Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) Pregnancy Risk Factor C Lactation Enters breast milk/not recommended Contraindications Hypersensitivity to ephedrine or any component[web.archive.org]
Irregular Heart Rhythm
  • They should not be combined with antidepressants or over-the-counter decongestants, as this combination can lead to severely high blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms.[talbottcampus.com]
Blurred Vision
  • Often times you may experience insomnia, dizziness and blurred vision. However, amphetamines are considered a “controlled substance” due to the extremely high chances of one being addicted or dependent upon the drug.[treatment4addiction.com]
  • Other side effects include anxiety, blurred vision, sleeplessness, and dizziness. Abuse of amphetamines can cause irregular heartbeat and even physical collapse.[well.com]
  • […] pep pills, copilots, bumble bees, Benzedrine, Dexedrine, footballs, biphetamine Orally, injected, snorted, or smoked Addiction, Irritability, Anxiety, Increased blood pressure, Paranoia/psychosis, Depression, Aggression, Convulsions, Dilated pupils & blurred[web.archive.org]
  • In addition the user, may experience dry mouth, sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness, and anxiety.[addictionrecov.org]
Diplopia
  • We are reporting 2 cases of definite brainstem dysfunction and 5 cases of transient diplopia secondary to IV abuse of Benzedrex .[doi.org]
  • Injection of the drug has been found to cause transient diplopia and brain stem dysfunction. Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Signs of intoxication include belligerence, assaultiveness, lethargy, psychomotor impairment, euphoria, impaired judgement, dizziness, nystagmus, blurred vision or diplopia, slurred speech, tremors, unsteady gait, hyperreflexia, muscle weakness, stupor[who.int]
Muscle Cramp
  • Some of the common signs that indicate that someone may have overdosed on stimulants include: Fast breathing and heartbeat Very large pupils Chest pain Muscle cramping Seizures or shaking High fever Dizziness Unconsciousness Convulsions Seizures Cardiovascular[harboroaks.com]
  • Symptoms of withdrawal include anxiety, irritability, insomnia (often with nightmares), nausea or vomiting, tachycardia, sweating, orthostatic hypoten- sion, hallucinatory misperceptions, muscle cramps, tremors and myoclonic twitches, hyperreflexia, and[who.int]
Flushing
  • Physical side effects include dizziness, tremor, headache, flushed skin, chest pains with palpitations, excessive sweating, vomiting, and abdominal cramps.[pamf.org]
  • Physical Signs of Stimulant Abuse Include: Increased alertness Weight loss Panic attacks Compulsive behavior Dizziness Flushed skin Excessive sweating Restlessness Inhibitory control Vomiting Aggression Chronic sleep problems Loss of coordination Loss[recoveryconnection.com]
  • Extremely high doses can cause users to flush or become pale, have irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse.[addictionrecov.org]
  • Report excessive nervousness or excitation, inability to sleep, facial flushing, pounding heartbeat, muscle tremors or weakness, chest pain or palpitations, bronchial irritation or coughing, or increased sweating.[web.archive.org]
  • Acetaldehyde is a toxic substance, implicated in the alcohol flush reaction and in certain physical sequelae of alcohol consumption.[who.int]
Increased Sweating
  • Report excessive nervousness or excitation, inability to sleep, facial flushing, pounding heartbeat, muscle tremors or weakness, chest pain or palpitations, bronchial irritation or coughing, or increased sweating.[web.archive.org]
Hyperactivity
  • Teenage status of hyperactive and non-hyperactive learning disabled boys. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1977; 47: 577–96 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 47. Riddle KD, Rapoport JL. A 2-year follow-up of 72 hyperactive boys.[doi.org]
  • KEYWORDS: diffusion tensor imaging ; adults; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; machine learning-based methods; structural MRI[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The separate and combined effects of stimulant drugs, placebos, and behavior therapy were investigated with two hyperactive boys.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Research reveals a decade-long increase in prescription drug misuse (PDM) of stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and college students in particular are at the highest risk for these behaviors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most debilitating childhood disorders, defined by age-inappropriate impulsiveness, inattention, and hyperactivity, 1 persisting into adulthood in about 65% of cases. 2 Patients with ADHD have[doi.org]
Seizure
  • The frequency of substances in the biological samples corresponded to their seizure rate. When SDDs were included on the NPS list, their frequency in biological samples and in seized materials slightly decreased or did not change.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most cocaine-induced seizures are of short duration and leave no residual effects, although prolonged seizures can be catastrophic (see earlier references under overdose management) ( Schrank, 1993 ; Cornish and O'Brien, 1996 ).[web.archive.org]
  • […] of breath Convulsions Stroke Limb jerking or rigidity Feeling paralyzed but you are awake Severe headache Hypertension (elevated blood pressure) Teeth grinding Insomnia or decreased need for sleep Tremors Overamping can lead to heart attack, stroke, seizure[harmreduction.org]
  • They are used medically to help control anxiety, sleeplessness and seizures. They also reduce heart and breathing rates, blood pressure, muscle tension and pain.[livestrong.com]
Agitation
  • Psychological symptoms of overamping, or “mental distress” could include: Extreme Anxiety Panic Extreme Paranoia Hallucinations Extreme Agitation Increased Aggressiveness Agitation, restlessness, irritability Hypervigilance (being super aware of your[harmreduction.org]
  • The serious difficulties encountered in using haloperidol for sedative-hypnotic withdrawal in humans when agitation and hyperthermia are present may also apply to its use for acutely agitated or psychotic stimulant users who already have deficits in thermoregulatory[web.archive.org]
  • […] rise to symptoms suggestive of intoxication, including abnormally rapid heart rate, dilatation of the pupils, elevated blood pressure, overactive reflexes, sweating, chills, nausea or vomiting, and abnormal behaviour such as fighting, hypervigilance, agitation[greenfacts.org]
  • Psychological effects include agitation, hostility, panic, aggression, and suicidal or homicidal tendencies. Paranoia, sometimes accompanied by both auditory and visual hallucinations, may also occur.[pamf.org]
Insomnia
  • ‘While initial insomnia can be a side effect of stimulant medication, it is also a common complaint of adults with untreated ADHD.’[web.archive.org]
  • Side effects include loss of appetite, insomnia, and weight loss. While under the influence of these controlled substances you may become overly sexually active and often times have unprotected sex.[treatment4addiction.com]
  • Ice causes a very jittery high, along with anxiety, insomnia, sometimes paranoia.[web.archive.org]
  • […] profusely, often with chills Fast Heart Rate, Racing pulse Irregular Breathing or shortness of breath Convulsions Stroke Limb jerking or rigidity Feeling paralyzed but you are awake Severe headache Hypertension (elevated blood pressure) Teeth grinding Insomnia[harmreduction.org]
  • Amphetamines can also affect the central nervous system and cause coma, seizures, confusion, tremors, dizziness and insomnia.[newhealthadvisor.com]
Tremor
  • Arm-drop of arm position was indicated by the arm longitudinal rotation axis (ALoRA), and tremor was indicated by the overall vector of dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Stature (patients were above 97.5% height for age), muscle consistency, and tremor indicated chromosome analysis. Psychological tests results did not fully fit the ADHD diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ice can cause convulsions, heart irregularities, high blood pressure, depression, restlessness, tremors, severe fatigue. An overdose can cause coma and death When you stop using ice you may experience a deep depression.[web.archive.org]
  • Rate, Racing pulse Irregular Breathing or shortness of breath Convulsions Stroke Limb jerking or rigidity Feeling paralyzed but you are awake Severe headache Hypertension (elevated blood pressure) Teeth grinding Insomnia or decreased need for sleep Tremors[harmreduction.org]
  • Abdominal cramps Psychological Signs of Stimulant Abuse Include: Poor judgment Visual and auditory hallucinations Loss of coordination Loss of verbal memory Tremors Suspiciousness Grandiosity Delusions Depression Stimulant psychosis Chronic stimulant[recoveryconnection.com]

Treatment

  • Twelve-step meeting attendance and literature reading during the treatment period predicted having a sponsor at the end of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] of treatment condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Multimodal treatment plus stimulants vs stimulant treatment in ADHD children: results from a two-year comparative treatment study.[doi.org]
  • Treatment effects on other DDM parameters may vary between treatments or interact with task parameters (number of trials, task difficulty).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate exercise as a treatment for stimulant use disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Merkel F, Pullig O, Marx M, Netzer KO, Weber M: Course and prognosis of anti-basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM-ab)-mediated disease: Report of 35 cases. Nephrol Dial Transpl 1994;9:372–376.[doi.org]
  • Since acute and chronic amphetamine psychoses may be different from each other in the respects of pathophysiology, clinical features, response to treatment, course of illness, and prognosis.[doi.org]
  • The less frequent ophthalmoplegias share a better prognosis with substantial improvement or resolution in most patients. 73 Given the real and potential complications of the corticosteroid therapy, it is important, albeit difficult, to determine the necessary[doi.org]
  • The prognosis for substance use disorders is worsened by the presence of other untreated psychiatric disorders (or substance use disorders).[web.archive.org]

Etiology

  • Amphetamine is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) as well as for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as narcolepsy. 1 ADHD is a complex disorder associated with the substantial heterogeneity in etiology[drugbank.ca]
  • Jerome, Gordon, and Hustler (1994) evaluated Canadian and U.S. teachers' knowledge of concepts related to ADHD and found that although teachers had little training regarding ADHD, they did well on knowledge-based questions regarding etiology and educational[ldonline.org]
  • Non-ethanol components of alcoholic beverages may be involved in the etiology.[who.int]

Epidemiology

  • Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several epidemiological studies on this issue have been published since then, warranting an update of the insights on this topic.[doi.org]
  • M 115 Methamphetamine Abuse: Epidemiologic Issues and Implications. NIDA Research Monograph 115. 130 pp. M 94 Pharmacology and Toxicology of Amphetamine-Related Designer Drugs. NIDA Research Monograph 94. 365 pp.[well.com]
  • A substantial body of epidemiologic evidence, consisting of over 500 papers relating the consumption of coffee to cancer of various sites, has accumulated to date.[doi.org]
  • Areas covered: Relevant literature on the long-term (defined as 12 months) cardiovascular effects of stimulant class medications for ADHD was sought using PubMed searches for clinical literature, epidemiological reports, as well as reviews of post-marketing[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.[doi.org]
  • Since acute and chronic amphetamine psychoses may be different from each other in the respects of pathophysiology, clinical features, response to treatment, course of illness, and prognosis.[doi.org]
  • The vasculitides and connective tissue diseases provide an avenue for investigating the pathophysiology of immune injury among the vasculature of the central and peripheral nervous systems, the viscera, and the skin.[doi.org]
  • Arch Intern Med 112:822–826 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Zalis EG, Lundberg GD, Knutson RA (1967) The pathophysiology of acute amphetamine poisoning with pathologic correlation.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Many responding physicians do not regularly implement practices that may prevent stimulant misuse, and the majority thinks most prevention practices are not very effective.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Age [OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09, 1.36, p CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a need for prevention efforts to be directed to AI youth who are prescribed stimulants. Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention and treatment strategies should focus on the protective effect of higher education levels and should target polydrug use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Doping with CNS stimulants is a real public health problem and all sports authorities should participate in its prevention. Dissemination of information is essential to prevent doping in sport and to provide alternatives.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conclusions: Doping with CNS stimulants is a real public health problem and all sports authorities should participate in its prevention. Dissemination of information is essential to prevent doping in sport and to provide alternatives.[doi.org]

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