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Stingray Envenomation

Stingray Poisoning


Presentation

  • Topics covered include managing the patient with sepsis or septic shock; anesthetic considerations for patients in respiratory failure; anesthetic concerns in patients presenting with renal failure; perioperative management of patients with liver failure[books.google.es]
  • A comprehensive textbook of adult emergency medicine for trainee doctors - covers all the problems likely to present to a trainee in the emergency department.[books.google.com]
  • Includes "Cardinal Presentations" sections that provide quick and easy guidance on differential diagnosis and directed testing.[books.google.es]
  • We retrospectively reviewed stingray stings presenting to our Emergency Department (ED) over an 8-year period. Cases were divided into acute (group 1, within 24 h of the sting) and subacute (group 2, 24 h or more after the sting) presentations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Soft Tissue Swelling
  • (Fig. 3) There was increased soft tissue swelling with slight tissue crepitus. His laboratory data revealed a 16,000 white count with a left shift.[faoj.org]
Burning Pain
Hemophilia A
  • Stay up to date with new chapters on Clotting Disorders and Hemophilia, Patient-Centered Care, Health Disparities and Diversity in Emergency Medicine, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, Antibiotic Recommendations for Empirical Treatment of Selected Infectious[books.google.es]
Axillary Pain
  • Lymphangitis, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, generalized cramps, inguinal or axillary pain, respiratory distress, and death have been reported.[msdmanuals.com]
Nausea
  • Systemic side effects can be seen, including nausea, vomiting, salivation, dyspnea, cardiac dysrhythmias, syncope, hypotension, seizures, fasciculations, and, rarely, death.[nursingcenter.com]
  • Syncope, weakness, nausea, and anxiety are common and may be due, in part, to peripheral vasodilation. Lymphangitis, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, generalized cramps, inguinal or axillary pain, respiratory distress, and death have been reported.[msdmanuals.com]
Vomiting
  • Systemic side effects can be seen, including nausea, vomiting, salivation, dyspnea, cardiac dysrhythmias, syncope, hypotension, seizures, fasciculations, and, rarely, death.[nursingcenter.com]
  • The pain from a stingray wound can be excruciating and accompanied by bleeding, weakness, vomiting, headache, fainting, shortness of breath, paralysis, collapse and occasionally, death.[dansa.org]
Abdominal Pain
  • pain, seizures and hypotension. 5 Stingray venom is a very heat sensitive protein.[podiatrytoday.com]
  • It causes severe pain, vasoconstriction, ischemia, and poor wound healing, along with systemic effects such as disorientation, syncope, seizures, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, muscle cramps or fasciculations, pruritus, allergic[mdedge.com]
  • If you’re stung by a stingray, you may experience these symptoms: abdominal pain anxiety bleeding diarrhea dizziness extreme pain at the wound site fatigue headache low blood pressure muscle cramps nausea necrosis (death) of surrounding tissue pain in[healthline.com]
Hypotension
  • Systemic side effects can be seen, including nausea, vomiting, salivation, dyspnea, cardiac dysrhythmias, syncope, hypotension, seizures, fasciculations, and, rarely, death.[nursingcenter.com]
  • , edema, cyanosis, erythema, petechiae, local necrosis, ulceration and delayed wound healing. 4 Systemic effects of stingray venom include: syncope, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis, muscle cramps, fasciculations, abdominal pain, seizures and hypotension[podiatrytoday.com]
Muscle Spasm
Photosensitive Skin Rash
  • As with doxycycline, many individuals can develop photosensitive skin rashes while on the medication.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Photosensitivity
  • As with doxycycline, many individuals can develop photosensitive skin rashes while on the medication.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Seizure
  • Systemic side effects can be seen, including nausea, vomiting, salivation, dyspnea, cardiac dysrhythmias, syncope, hypotension, seizures, fasciculations, and, rarely, death.[nursingcenter.com]
  • He brought to local primary health center 5 hours later and taken oral NSAID (mefenamic acid) and amoxicillin was given, 15 minutes later patient started having seizures.[medcraveonline.com]
Dizziness
  • Call 911 if the person has symptoms of a severe allergic reaction, such as: Difficulty breathing Tightness in throat Itching Nausea Fast pulse Dizziness Loss of consciousness See Severe Allergic Reaction Treatment. 1.[webmd.com]
  • Study co-author Bryan Fry surmises that this combination “can produce sensations of extremely unpleasant nausea and dizziness.” While the predator is reeling, the fang blenny flees.[theverge.com]
  • The pain is felt sharply and immediately and is accompanied by major swelling, local paralysis and dizziness. In addition, the victim’s vision, speech and awareness may be impaired.[baignades.sante.gouv.fr]
  • Symptoms of Stingray Stings extreme pain (can last as long as two days) bleeding swelling around the wound redness or blue coloring around the wound dizziness muscle cramps or weakness seizures irregular pulse low blood pressure Because most stings come[verywellhealth.com]
  • If you’re stung by a stingray, you may experience these symptoms: abdominal pain anxiety bleeding diarrhea dizziness extreme pain at the wound site fatigue headache low blood pressure muscle cramps nausea necrosis (death) of surrounding tissue pain in[healthline.com]

Workup

Pericardial Effusion
Mediastinal Mass
Staphylococcus Aureus
  • Tissue cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. He was placed on IV Levaquin. His initial infection took about a week to resolve and he was discharged from the hospital.[faoj.org]
  • It is indicated for Staphylococcus aureus and infections caused by multidrug resistant gram-negative organisms.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Serious complication more likely caused by untreated infection, most infection resulted by the microorganism that found in water of injuries site, common pathogens to infect the wound include staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus species.[medcraveonline.com]

Treatment

  • If treatment is delayed, infection from marine bacteria often requires hospitalization including intravenous antibiotics and surgical treatment.[faoj.org]
  • Get clear, concise descriptions and evidence-based treatment guidelines for a full range of clinical conditions, ranging from the common to the unusual.[books.google.es]
  • Treatment of stingray injury with topical becaplermin gel. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1999; 89: 531-3. Rocca A, Moran E, Lippert F. III. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of soft tissue necrosis resulting from a stingray puncture.[new.medigraphic.com]

Prognosis

  • […] into the throat, and breathing machine ECG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicine called an antiserum to reverse the effect of the venom Medicine to treat symptoms Tetanus shot, if necessary X-rays Outlook (Prognosis[mountsinai.org]

Epidemiology

  • Journals Revista de Investigación Clínica Year 2009, Issue 1 Cazorla D, Loyo J, Lugo L, Acosta M Clinical, epidemiological and treatment aspects of 10 cases of saltwater stingray envenomation Rev Invest Clin 2009; 61 (1) Language: Español References:[new.medigraphic.com]
  • OBJECTIVE: A descriptive and prospective survey was conducted to analyze epidemiological, clinical and treatment aspects of injuries caused by marine stingrays in Adicora, Paraguaná peninsula, Falcon State, a northwestern, semiarid region of Venezuela[read.qxmd.com]
  • This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms.[jhu.pure.elsevier.com]
  • But I've compiled the following list of links that may help: Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Management of Stingray Injuries. Article from the Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society. Stingray Envenomation of the Foot : A Case Report.[beachhunter.net]
  • This review briefly covers the epidemiology, presentation, and management of these types of injuries in the emergency department or acute care clinic.[aaemrsa.blogspot.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation.[jhu.pure.elsevier.com]

Prevention

  • As with many types of dive accidents, prevention is the best medicine when it comes to stingray accidents.[justgottadive.com]
  • Get the skills you need now with new information on global humanitarian relief and expedition medicine, plus expanded coverage of injury prevention and environmental preservation.[books.google.es]
  • The primary closure is delayed and the wound is left open to prevent anaerobic infection. Systemic symptoms were ceased 2 hours after surgery.[medcraveonline.com]

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