Upon protrusion through the hernial orifice, blood vessels of a hernia may become constricted. This condition is referred to as strangulated hernia; it may be associated with gangrenous necrosis of affected tissues and life-threatening complications.
Strangulation may occur within distinct periods of time after the initial protrusion of viscera . It should be noted that a considerable subset of individuals suffering from hernia remains asymptomatic until strangulation occurs. Rarely, SH is observed in patients previously diagnosed with hernia, who have been recommended watchful waiting or opted against elective surgery.
Most commonly, the hernial sac corresponds to a visible and palpable bulge, but this may not be the case in obese SH patients. The hernial sac and surrounding tissues are often erythematous and extremely tender, and patients claim intensifying discomfort when adopting a determined posture or coughing. In SH patients, intense pain usually leads to the diagnosis of acute abdomen. As per definition, SH is not manually reducible . With regards to hernia contents, functional impairment of protruded viscera usually manifest as the inability to pass stools or gasses. Bowel sounds may be decreased or absent . Compromise of the urogenital tract may cause micturition problems. Diaphragmatic SH may also be associated with respiratory symptoms. Any strangulated tissue may undergo gangrenous necrosis and serve as a source of toxins released upon cell death. If portions of the intestines are affected, microorganisms may pass the mucosal barrier and cause sepsis. Patients may thus present with systemic symptoms such as general malaise, fever, tachycardia, nausea, and vomiting.
Entire Body System
- Inguinal Mass
Differential Diagnosis: Not all inguinal masses are hernias. [fastbleep.com]
Inguinal masses that resemble hernias may be the result of adenopathy (infectious or malignant), an ectopic testis, or lipoma. These masses are solid and are not reducible. A scrotal mass may be a varicocele, hydrocele, or testicular tumor. [msdmanuals.com]
Cysts located in the inguinal canal are present as inguinal mass, while those occurring below in the outer ring are usually pubic masses. Cysts of the round ligament are round, solid masses with clear boundaries, with a cystic feeling. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Obstruction to the fecal current accounts for the constipation, vomiting, tympanites and the presence of indican in the urine. The severity Full Text [jamanetwork.com]
Perhaps your son is just constipated. I would call the dr's office and ask about it. One option would be an enema, but I would talk to a dr or nurse and give some pear juice before that. [inspire.com]
History H/O Reducible inguinoscrotal swelling, H/O recent irreducibility, Pain (site, duration, character) Absolute Constipation, Abdominal Distention. Physical Examination Never try to manually reduce the strangulated hernia. [medicalopedia.org]
In another case, to which I was called in consultation, the old woman had stercoraceous vomiting for three or four days, with constipation. The hernia was femoral and irreducible. [neatorama.com]
Patients with an untreated strangulated hernia often experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. Such symptoms may indicate that the infection within the intestine has spread to additional regions of the body. [livestrong.com]
- Abdominal Pain
He presented an abdominal pain of sudden onset 16 hours previously. The clinical examination, abdominal x-ray, and sonography were not helpful in the assessment of the diagnosis of internal hernia, which was evoked by the computed tomography. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis Case 4-2019: An 18-Year-Old Man with Abdominal Pain and Hematochezia Bridging the Gap Challenge Yourself [nejm.org]
Generalized Abdominal Pain Generalized abdominal pain could also be a hernia symptom. This pain is serious, and results from internal abdominal organs, such as intestines, being pinched by the hernia, resulting in a compromised blood supply. [herniacenterlosangeles.com]
- Abdominal Mass
Risk factors for the development of adult umbilical hernias include obesity, multiparity, ascites, and large abdominal masses. Adult umbilical hernias exhibit a female-to-male predominance and occur most commonly in those aged 50 to 70. [ahcmedia.com]
Hernias are usually diagnosed clinically. Additional measures are rarely necessary, but sonography as well as plain radiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging may be employed in selected cases  . An appropriate technique should be chosen to allow the identification of the hernial orifice and hernial contents as well as the assessment of the protruded tissues condition.
In general, the medical term hernia refers to the protrusion of viscera through an orifice into the so-called hernial sac. A specific case of hernia is defined by hernial location and its content.
- The most common form of the disease is inguinal hernia, i.e., the protrusion of abdominal viscera through the internal inguinal ring or the Hesselbach's triangle into the inguinal canal. Affected individuals are diagnosed with indirect inguinal hernia or direct inguinal hernia, respectively. Inguinal hernia accounts for up to 75% of all hernias and usually comprises the intestines . A considerable share of inguinal hernias is congenital .
- Femoral hernia accounts for up to 17% of all cases  and is defined as the protrusion of abdominal contents through the femoral ring into the femoral canal .
- Less than 10% of hernias are umbilical hernias, and affected individuals suffer from the protrusion of abdominal viscera through the umbilical ring, the prior site of insertion of the umbilical cord .
- Rare types of hernia include obturator hernia, epigastric hernia, hiatus hernia and other forms of diaphragmatic hernia , protrusion of tissues through artificial orifices , and traumatic hernia . With regards to the contents of the hernial sac, patients may be diagnosed with Richter's hernia, Littre hernia, or cystocele, among others.
In any case, the more or less rigid boundaries of an hernial orifice may interfere with arterial blood supply and venous return from tissues contained in the hernial sac. This condition is known as strangulated hernia (SH) and may lead to blood stasis, functional impairment of affected organs and acute inflammation . In the case of protruded intestines, for instance, strangulation is associated with an increased permeability of the intestinal wall and a possible breach of microorganisms. Walls of the hernial sac may eventually become gangrenous and necrotic, thus rendering SH a surgical emergency that may be associated with life-threatening sepsis.
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