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Streptococcal Septicemia

Streptococcaemia


Presentation

  • This article reports our experience over a 6-year period with respect to the prevalence and clinical presentation of viridans streptococcal vis-à-vis Group B streptococcal septicemia in neonates.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This article reports our experience over a 6-year period with respect to the prevalence and clinical presentation of viridans streptococcal vis-a-vis Group B streptococcal septicemia in neonates.[journals.lww.com]
  • Typical radiographic appearance of pneumonia was present in only ten of the 24 proven and two of the 14 suspected cases of group B streptococcal sepsis.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Chills
  • Bacteremia (bloodstream infection) and sepsis (the body’s extreme response to an infection) symptoms include: Fever Chills Low alertness Pneumonia (lung infection) symptoms include: Fever Chills Cough Rapid breathing or difficulty breathing Chest pain[cdc.gov]
  • People with weakened immune systems Infants and children The elderly People with chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, AIDS, cancer, and kidney or liver disease People suffering from a severe burn or physical trauma Common symptoms of sepsis are fever, chills[icdlist.com]
  • It often produces : Fever (high temperature, pyrexia), and there may be chills and shivering Fast heart rate/ pulse ( tachycardia ) Rapid rate of breathing (tachypnea) Unusual levels of sweating (diaphoresis) It is particularly important to call for urgent[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Other "Supportive Care for Patients—Fever, Chills, and Sweats."[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Symptoms Symptoms of sepsis are usually nonspecific and include fever, chills, and constitutional symptoms of fatigue, malaise (def), anxiety, or confusion.[faculty.ccbcmd.edu]
Malaise
  • Symptoms Symptoms of sepsis are usually nonspecific and include fever, chills, and constitutional symptoms of fatigue, malaise (def), anxiety, or confusion.[faculty.ccbcmd.edu]
  • […] inflammation, acute tenderness (patient 'guards' infected area, unless there is sensory neuropathy), lymphangitis (of lymphatic vessels draining infected tissues), regional lymphadenopathy ( see lymphadenitis ), suppuration, pus and abscess formation, general malaise[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Begins with a fever and may include chills, headache, and malaise. In some patients there are also mild respiratory symptoms, dry cough, and trouble breathing.[quizlet.com]
  • Manifestations Symptoms of sepsis are usually nonspecific and include fever, chills, and constitutional symptoms of fatigue, malaise, anxiety, or confusion. Symptoms may be absent in serious infections, especially in elderly patients.[atsu.edu]
Severe Clinical Course
  • We suggest that patients with hematologic malignancies are at risk of an unusually severe clinical course of streptococcal septicemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Regurgitation
  • One (1%) had definite endocarditis proved at autopsy. 16 patients (24%) had probable endocarditis due to the presence of either a new regurgitant murmur or both a predisposing heart disease and embolic phenomena; 39 (57%) had possible endocarditis based[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cardiomegaly
  • The most prominent associated radiographic feature of infants with proven septicemia was cardiomegaly which was significantly increased when compared with infants who had other causes of respiratory distress (P less than .001).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most prominent associated radiographic feature of infants with proven septicemia was cardiomegaly which was significantly increased when compared with infants who had other causes of respiratory distress ( P .001).[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Hunger
  • Well Photo Credit Illustration by Celia Jacobs Outrunning Hunger Intense exercise may change the way certain neurons influence our appetite and metabolism.[nytimes.com]
Encephalopathy
  • Septic episodes were complicated by shock (2 of 15), encephalopathy (2 of 15), pneumonia (3 of 15) and death (1 of 15). Oral mucosal lesions may provide a portal of entry for alpha-hemolytic streptococci.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • “Lack of efficacy of the urine culture as part of the initial workup of suspected neonatal sepsis”. Pediatr Infect Dis J. vol. 11. 1992. pp. 764-6. Visser, VE, Hall, RT. “Urine culture in the evaluation of suspected neonatal sepsis”.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Approximately 45% of the cases of septicemia are due to gram-positive bacteria. Approximately 10% of the cases of septicemia are due to fungi, mainly the yeast Candida. The sources for sepsis are infections elsewhere in the body.[faculty.ccbcmd.edu]
  • The Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae (also called GBS), responsible for septicemia and meningitis in neonates also emerged during the seventies as a cause of severe epidemics in fish farms.[mendeley.com]
  • Gram positive bacteria were shown to be the most frequent cause of sepsis in the US in a 2003 study (see epidemiology section).[atsu.edu]
  • However, S. dysgalactiae can also be group A. [1] S. pyogenes is a beta-hemolytic species of Gram positive bacteria that is responsible for a wide range of both invasive and noninvasive infections. [2] Infection of GAS may spread through direct contact[en.wikipedia.org]
Gram-Positive Coccus
  • - Discussion: - gram positive coccus - spetrum of streptococci pyogenes infections: - most common cause of celluitis and lymphangitis; - superficial form of infection is called impetigo which affects stratum corneum; - ecthyma contagiosum describes shallow[wheelessonline.com]
  • Group A Strep (GAS) Infection Related Articles Group A Strep (GAS) Infection Facts Streptococcus pyogenes , also known as group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus , or group A strep ( GAS ) is a gram-positive coccus (spherical bacteria) that is ubiquitous[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Introduction Group B Streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive coccus found in 20% of healthy women as part of normal gastrointestinal and genital tract flora. 1 , 2 It is associated with pathogenicity in immunocompromised, elderly[bmjopen.bmj.com]

Treatment

  • Eleven episodes occurred at two specific treatment points. Septic episodes were complicated by shock (2 of 15), encephalopathy (2 of 15), pneumonia (3 of 15) and death (1 of 15).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis, and additional useful information HERE.[dovemed.com]
  • Aggressive treatment, including intravitreal injection of methicillin and dexamethasone, resulted in a normal appearing and functioning eye when the infant was 8 months old.[utexas.influuent.utsystem.edu]

Prognosis

  • Males had a worse prognosis than females and were also more often affected. Thirty-six percent of the verified cases were premature, the gestational age being 36 weeks or less. An increased incidence among twins was also noted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] condition can worsen and even be fatal Please find comprehensive information on Group B Streptococcal Infection in Newborns regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) This disease can be life threatening without prompt treatment.[healthycellsmagazine.com]
  • Group A Strep (GAS) Infection Prognosis Tonsillopharyngitis and uncomplicated skin and soft-tissue infections caused by GAS have a good prognosis.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract After introduction of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), a change toward an increase of infections by Staphylococcus epidermidis and alpha-hemolytic Streptococci has been noticed in the predominant etiology of infections[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • .* THE FURTHER CONSIDERATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF PELLAGRA WITH REFERENCE TO AMEBIC.[insights.ovid.com]
  • A recommended initial antibiotic regimen is a beta-lactam (often a broad-spectrum drug until etiology is confirmed by culture) plus clindamycin .[merckmanuals.com]
  • Etiology, Pathology, Symptomology, Diagnosis S. B. STRONG, M.[henriettes-herb.com]
  • Ongoing controversies regarding etiology, diagnosis, treatment Cytokines: Researchers continue to investigate various cytokines and their relationship to infection in the neonate.[clinicaladvisor.com]

Epidemiology

  • Modes of transmission, age distribution of cases, and other epidemiologic features are similar to those for streptococcal pharyngitis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology The most common cause of mortality in the intensive care unit is septic shock. Even with the best treatment mortality ranges from 15% in patients with sepsis to 40-60% in patients with septic shock.[faculty.ccbcmd.edu]
  • Gram positive bacteria were shown to be the most frequent cause of sepsis in the US in a 2003 study (see epidemiology section).[atsu.edu]
  • Epidemiology of group B Streptococcus: longitudinal observations during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1978;137:524–30. Regan JA, Klebanoff MA, Nugent RP. The epidemiology of group B streptococcal colonization in pregnancy.[acog.org]
  • By contrast, streptolysin O induces a persistently high antibody titer, an effect that provides a useful marker for the diagnosis and epidemiologic studies of group A streptococcal infections and the late nonsuppurative complications.[histopathology-india.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Abstract In a controlled randomized study among 48 patients undergoing 75 courses of aggressive antileukemic therapy, it was shown that cotrimoxazole was less effective than penicillin G in preventing septicemia due to viridans streptococci.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • EORTC International Antimicrobial Therapy Project Group (1984) Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the prevention of infection in neutropenic patients. J Infect Dis 150: 372–379 Google Scholar 9.[link.springer.com]
  • Special attention is given to the prevention and treatment of these diseases found in developing countries as well as the latest findings about new antimicrobial agents, gram-negative infections and their management, and recommendations for immunization[books.google.com]
  • […] her 35th-37th week of pregnancy for group B Streptococcs agalactiae infection, checking the newborn for infection even in the absence of symptoms, washing hands before handling a newborn, and starting treatment promptly after diagnosis are some known preventive[dovemed.com]

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