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Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Pneumococcal


Presentation

  • The author reports an elderly male presenting with isolated fever and initial blood cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the case of a previously healthy, unimmunized 33-year-old female with functional asplenia who presented in septic shock and purpura fulminans and died in spite of maximal resuscitative measures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we describe MERS in a 10-year-old boy who presented with fever and consciousness and who completely recovered within a few days. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the causative agent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After 2010, there was a decrease in serotypes 14, 1, 23F and 5 and an increase in serotypes 3, 12F, 11A and 8, which were not present in the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study noted the increase in serotypes 3, 12F, 11A and 8 after vaccination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Severe Abdominal Pain
  • Seven days after, she presented a progressive deterioration of its general condition and the onset of severe abdominal pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
  • Both children fully recovered, and none of them developed constrictive pericarditis, although 1 case presented a transient secondary left ventricular dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Refractory Shock
  • He progressed into hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation and refractory shock despite resuscitation and early antibiotic commencement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Leg Cramp
  • We report a case of a previously healthy 68-year-old female who presented at our clinic with complaints of pain in her left calf since having experienced a very painful leg cramp 3 weeks prior.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • We acknowledge that our diagnosis is presumptive since cultures from sterile sites (ie, blood) were negative; an extensive workup for other etiologies was negative.[journals.lww.com]
  • […] following: Echocardiography Middle-ear fluid aspiration Pleural fluid aspiration Chest tube thoracostomy or catheter placement Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) or pleural decortication Joint fluid aspiration Biopsy of bone, soft tissue, or muscle See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pericardial Effusion
  • We experienced an independent 62-year-old man with lung cancer who was hospitalized for acute onset of atrial flutter and moderate pericardial effusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Previously, routine cortical mastoidectomy was recommended for AM treatment, but new data suggest that a more conservative treatment approach can be considered, including intravenous (IV) antibiotics alone or IV antibiotics with myringotomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case of septic arthritis emphasises the importance of the clinical presentation to determine the correct diagnosis and treatment modalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Current treatment regimen advocates the use of corticosteroids as adjunct treatment with antibiotics, for their broad inhibitory effect on the activity and production of pro-inflammatory mediators.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AOM, and post-treatment visits), based on their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics performed by analyses of serotype, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and multilocus sequence typing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Combined blood purification techniques 36 h after the start of treatment successfully decreased Interleukin-6 level, lactacidosis, the need for vasopressors to maintain normotension, improved systolic function of the left ventricle and clinical outcome[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Pneumococcal conjunctivitis, otitis media, and sinusitis in developed countries where appropriate antibiotics are available usually carry an excellent prognosis; potential complications are listed above (see Complications).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The poor prognosis seen in patients with pneumococcal meningitis complicated by HUS is consistent with the earlier observation that the severity of pneumococcal meningitis is related to neuraminidase activity and TF exposure in the central nervous system[link.springer.com]
  • Others may need rehabilitation to restore muscle mass and increase exercise endurance. [14] [15] (Level V) Outcomes The prognosis for patients with streptococcal pneumonia depends on the underlying risk factors, comorbidity, age, the extent of lung involvement[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Community-acquired polymicrobial pneumonia in the intensive care unit: aetiology and prognosis. Crit Care. 2011;15(5):R209. [ Links ] 9 Arnold FW, Wiemken TL, Peyrani P, Ramirez JA, Brock GN.[scielo.br]
  • Invasive pneumococcal infections: incidence, predisposing factors, and prognosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1985;Mar-Apr7(2):133–142. Google Scholar Adriaenssens N, Coenen S, Versporten A, Muller A, Minalu G, Faes C, et al. ESAC Project Group.[bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com]

Etiology

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae as etiologic agent of necrotizing fasciitis is extremely unusual. The increased susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is probably a multifactorial phenomenon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • SP infection should be considered as a causative etiology in all splenectomized patients with HUS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of AESD is viral infection and associated pathological changes. Here we report the first case of AESD caused by bacterial infection (Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis) in a 1-year-old boy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We review the literature for similar cases due to S. pneumoniae in the pediatric population and discuss the etiology and treatment of purpura fulminans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A quick detection of urinary antigen helps in obtaining a documented result in case of Streptococcus pneumoniae CAP.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • KEYWORDS: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus); Infectious disease epidemiology; modelling; spread of disease; vaccine policy development[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Streptococcus pneumoniae; antibiotic resistance; ecological competition; epidemiology; mathematical model[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This study investigated the epidemiology of IPD in adults 65 years of age and older in Canada.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For Health Professionals Clinical Information on Pneumococcal PCV13 (Pneumococcal Conjugate) Vaccine (Updated Sept 2015 ) Recommendations, scenarios and Q&As for healthcare providers about PCV13 Pink Book's chapter on Pneumococcal Disease Epidemiology[web.archive.org]
  • This case is unusual because of the patient's young age at presentation, the absence of predisposing factors, and the isolation of a nonvaccine serotype 21, which revealed the epidemiologic changes of invasive pneumococcal disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful Rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Streptococcus[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • Pathophysiology The precise pathophysiology of pneumococcal HUS has not been determined. However, there is evidence of a role for the Thomsen–Friedenreich (TF) cryptantigen [ 39 ].[link.springer.com]
  • The overall rate of confirmed S. pneumoniae infection in the United States is 5.16 to 6.11 cases/100,000 in adults with the rate for those older than 65 years being 36.4/100,000 and infants younger than 1 year being 34.2/100,000. [6] [7] [8] Pathophysiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The microbiome and the pathophysiology of asthma. Respir Res. 17, 163 (2016). 9. Venkataraman, A. et al. Application of a neutral community model to assess structuring of the human lung microbiome. MBio. 6, e02284–14 (2015). 10. Chien, Y. W. et al.[nature.com]

Prevention

  • Control and Prevention, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Ask the Experts about PCV13 and PPSV23 CDC experts answer your clinical questions (Immunization Action Coalition) Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants Updated Apr 2012 Facts about pneumococcal[web.archive.org]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[cdc.gov]
  • Prevnar 13 is the trade name in the United States, Canada, and Taiwan. 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumonia can be prevented - vaccines can help. .[pfizer.com]
  • BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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