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Streptococcus Pyogenes


Presentation

  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe two pediatric cases of S. pyogenes endocarditis with associated toxic shock. Case 1 was a previously well Caucasian 6-year-old female who presented with sepsis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She presented a periprosthetic infection from Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) after scarlet fever.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because of the necessity of early recognition of the varied presentation of these infections, the clinical features as well as essential interventions are emphasized.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • SDSE, however, lacks several key virulence factors present in GAS, such as SPE-B, the hyaluronan synthesis operon and active superantigen against human immune cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcal vulvovaginitis was diagnosed less often in the present study, but it was still far more common than streptococcal balanitis in childhood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection
  • Despite the dramatic increase in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections associated with varicella zoster virus infections in recent years, post-varicella S. pyogenes meningitis occurs very rarely.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Invasive group A streptococcal disease in children and association with varicella-zoster virus infection. Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Unconscious State
  • In spite of the improvement of her unconscious state, she developed a new-onset systolic murmur on day 13, and echocardiography revealed severe mitral valve regurgitation with vegetation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Regurgitation
  • In spite of the improvement of her unconscious state, she developed a new-onset systolic murmur on day 13, and echocardiography revealed severe mitral valve regurgitation with vegetation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Systolic Murmur
  • In spite of the improvement of her unconscious state, she developed a new-onset systolic murmur on day 13, and echocardiography revealed severe mitral valve regurgitation with vegetation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Retinal Lesion
  • However, after the discontinuation of the antibiotics and prednisolone, the retinal lesion became more vasoproliferative and caused leakage to reduce the vision again. The leakage was remedied by laser photocoagulation to the retinal lesion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intertrigo
  • Abstract We report a 12-month-old infant girl with cervical intertrigo caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. This form of intertrigo has been reported in only five children, but it is clearly underestimated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Foot Ulcer
  • Recurrent sepsis with S. pyogenes is extremely rare, and a foot ulcer was the suspected point of entry. The patient did not develop opsonizing antibodies to the isolate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

HLA-Cw6
  • Moreover, a higher TH17 response was observed in cells isolated from patients with flares associated with a streptococcal tonsillitis and with the HLA-Cw6 allele (cohort 1).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Eleven strains caused recurrent pharyngitis within 40 days after the last treatment, all of them showing the same PFGE-type as the primary strains. Eight of the strains caused recurrence more than 40 days after the treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most treatments are now aimed at either elimination of this bacterium or suppression of its virulence. The emergence of antibiotic resistance among S. pyogenes and treatment failure has become an added concern globally.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antibiotic therapy is a mainstay of treatment, although antimicrobial resistance has drastically increased over the years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Despite a wide surgical debridement and antibiotic treatment, the clinical status of the patient failed to improve and she subsequently died.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient was treated initially with ceftriaxone (4 g/day) and the control CSF examination was not changed on the third day, so vancomycin (2 g/day) was added to the treatment; however, she died on the fourth day of the treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The pathogenesis of this invasive infection, as well as predictors of poor prognosis are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) is the etiological agent of perineal infection in children, consisting of perianal infection, vulvovaginitis and balanitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bacterial etiology and typing were obtained by PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and M-protein genes from abscess material. The bacterium was of serotype M41, and serology indicated that it had expressed procoagulant factors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Customized repackaging per client specifications, maintaining 'chain of custody' Customized labels, reports, and data maintenance Specimen disposal per OSHA, EDA, State, and Federal guidelines Comprehensive domestic & international shipping & tracking Etiologic[zeptometrix.com]
  • These sequelae begin 1-3 weeks after the acute illness, a latent period consistent with an immune-mediated rather than pathogen-disseminated etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • In recent epidemiological studies, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has been isolated from severe invasive streptococcal infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Whole-genome sequencing presents a valid alternative that allows accurate fine-scale epidemiological investigation of bacterial infectious disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A tailored whole-genome reference population comprising epidemiologically relevant contemporaneous isolates and published isolates was assembled.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of superficial disease The main focus of epidemiologic research on S. pyogenes infections has been and still is invasive S. pyogenes disease, RHD, and toxin-mediated diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Epidemiological data; Genomic evolution; Group A Streptococcus; Mainland China; Scarlet fever[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • We review the pathophysiology of invasive Group A streptococcal infection to increase awareness of these uncommon but fulminant and often lethal infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Thomsen- Friedenreich antigen (T antigen) plays a role in the pathophysiology of pneumococcal HUS. We describe the case of a 3-year-old boy with GAS-associated HUS and show how T-antigen exposure was implicated in this case.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We review 12 other cases reported in the literature, and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of this potentially life-threatening disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) is a common cause of pharyngitis and skin and soft tissue infection.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • Further studies are needed to determine whether ProT is the pathophysiological target zymogen of SfbX(1-312), to delineate the natural substrate of the SfbX(1-312)·ProT complex, and to elucidate the role of SfbX in the pathology of S. pyogenes infection[bloodjournal.org]

Prevention

  • Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antibacterial disinfectants have been partially effective only, indicating the need for novel preventative measures and to understand mechanisms of bacterial resistance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Plasminogen, bound to the streptococcal surface, efficiently prevents histone-mediated killing. Moreover, the streptokinase/plasminogen complex degrades all classes of histones and abrogates their antibacterial and hemolytic effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most importantly, it is concluded that recurrent otitis media has to be treated carefully following appropriate identification of the causing organism in order to prevent severe clinical courses of streptococcal infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (T092) Container/Tube: Culture transport swab (Dacron or rayon swab with aluminum or plastic shaft with either Stuart or Amies liquid medium [T092]) Specimen Volume: Swab Additional Information: Submission of a vaginal source is limited to Infection Prevention[mayomedicallaboratories.com]

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