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Stress Polycythemia

Gaisböck Syndrome


Presentation

  • Abstract A case of stress polycythemia without symptoms of cerebral ischemia is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Butterworth-Heinemann, ٢٢‏/١٠‏/٢٠١٣ - 1300 من الصفحات Stress in Health and Disease presents the principal pathways mediating the response to a stressor. It discusses the clinical background of cross-resistance and treatment with stress-hormones.[books.google.com]
  • It is recommended that patients use the information presented as a part of a broader decision-making process. Please DO NOT STOP MEDICATIONS without first consulting a physician since doing so could be hazardous to your health.[ehealthme.com]
  • Splenomegaly absent absent present in 75% of the cases 9. Hepatomegaly absent absent present in 35% of the cases 10. Heart or lung disease absent present absent 11. Cyanosis may be present present absent Possible References Used Back to tests[labpedia.net]
  • It presents with bruising, bleeding and cerebrovascular symptoms.[medassignments.com]
Fatigue
  • We ask about general symptoms (anxious mood, depressed mood, fatigue, pain, and stress) regardless of condition. Last updated: January 31, 2019[patientslikeme.com]
  • Fatigue and headache were common, and syncopal attacks occurred in four patients.[nejm.org]
  • On this subject I am 24 and having severe concentration problems fatigue and memory issues so bad currently right now that I cant even enjoy life to its fullest extent dating friends etc.[curezone.org]
  • […] bleeding due to a cut or a nosebleed Intense and frequent bone pain and/or muscle pain Headaches, lightheadedness or gastrointestinal symptoms Vision problems Ringing in the ears Difficulty or labored breathing The color of the skin appears reddish Fatigue[cancer.uvahealth.com]
  • Constitutional symptoms : weight loss, fatigue, sweating Hyperviscosity syndrome (triad of mucosal bleeding, neurological symptoms, and visual changes) Plethora Facial flushing Cyanotic lips Pruritus : Itching typically worsens when the skin comes into[amboss.com]
Arm Pain
  • Weakness 331 Muscular Dystrophy 332 Mycosis Fungoides 333 Myelodysplastic Syndrome 334 Myocarditis 335 Myoglobinuria 336 Myopathies Toxic 337 Myotonia 338 Myxedema Coma 339 Nail Koilonychia 340 Nail Striations 341 Narcissistic Personality 342 Neck and Arm[books.google.de]
Rectal Pain
  • Pain 417 Red Hot Joint 418 Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma 419 Renal Failure Postrenal Causes 420 Renal Tubular Acidosis 421 Respiratory Failure Hypoventilatory 422 Reticulocytosis 423 Retinopathy Hypertensive 424 Rheumatic Fever 425 Rhinitis Allergic 426[books.google.de]
Xerostomia
  • Paralysis 500 Volume Excess 501 Vulvar Cancer 502 Vulvovaginitis Bacterial 504 Vulvovaginitis Trichomonas 505 Weakness Gradual Onset 506 Weight Loss 507 Wheezing 508 Whiplash 509 Wrist Pain 510 Wrist and Hand Pain in Different Age Groups 511 Xanthoma 513 Xerostomia[books.google.de]
Hypertension
  • Some of these patients are on diuretic therapy for hypertension, which further contracts plasma volume. Again, hematological diagnosis by estimation of blood volume is needed for certainty and rational management.[alpfmedical.info]
  • […] stress polycythemia a chronic type of relative polycythemia, seen most often in middle-aged, mildly obese males who are active, anxiety-prone, and hypertensive, occurring without the characteristic symptoms associated with polycythemia vera, i.e., without[medicine.academic.ru]
  • 400 Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder 401 Pronator Syndrome 402 Proteinuria 403 Pruritus Ani 404 Pseudofolliculitis Barbae Ingrown Hairs Razor Bumps 405 Pseudoinfarction 406 Psittacosis 407 Ptosis 408 Puberty Delayed 409 Puberty Precocious 410 Pulmonary Hypertension[books.google.de]
  • Tepel M: Oxidative stress: does it play a role in the genesis of essential hypertension and hypertension of uraemia? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003;18:1439-1442. Madamanchi NR, Vendrow A, Runge MS: Oxidative stress and vascular diseases.[karger.com]
  • A careful physical examination discovered that the child had severe hypertension. Extensive laboratory investigations did not reveal a cause for his hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Myopathy
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment 325 Mitral Regurgitation 326 Monoarthritis Acute 327 Mononucleosis 328 Mucormycosis 329 Mumps 330 Muscle Weakness 331 Muscular Dystrophy 332 Mycosis Fungoides 333 Myelodysplastic Syndrome 334 Myocarditis 335 Myoglobinuria 336 Myopathies[books.google.de]
Flushing
  • Clinical features include facial flushing, pruritus, erythromelalgia, headaches, and dizziness. Severe complications such as thrombotic events (e.g., stroke, Budd-Chiari syndrome) may occur.[amboss.com]
  • Now my symptoms as you know were Severe Fatigue, Severe Facial Flushing, Very fast heart rate, confusion and drowsiness, Memory Problems, Short term memory loss. ------------------------------------------------------- Verifiable sources: (I will put quotes[curezone.org]
  • Effects upon fishes of a periodic flushing of electrical power plants boiler tubes with chlorine. M.A. Thesis, Southern Illinois Univ. at carbondale. 37 pp. Google Scholar Davidsohn, I. & D. A. Nelson. 1969. The blood. pp. 120–330. In: I.[link.springer.com]
Scrotal Pain
  • Pain 432 Seasonal Affective Disorder 433 Seizures Absence 434 Septicemia 435 Serotonin Syndrome 436 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Anorectal Region 437 Shoulder Pain 438 Sialadenitis 439 Silicosis 440 Small Bowel Obstruction 441 Smallpox 442 Sore Throat[books.google.de]
Headache
  • One visible symptom of polycythemia vera are headaches, according to this research from the National Institutes of Health . By reducing blood flow to the brain, painful headaches can become quite common.[activebeat.com]
  • Clinical features include facial flushing, pruritus, erythromelalgia, headaches, and dizziness. Severe complications such as thrombotic events (e.g., stroke, Budd-Chiari syndrome) may occur.[amboss.com]
  • Fatigue and headache were common, and syncopal attacks occurred in four patients.[nejm.org]
  • Symptoms may include: Abnormal and heavy bleeding due to a cut or a nosebleed Intense and frequent bone pain and/or muscle pain Headaches, lightheadedness or gastrointestinal symptoms Vision problems Ringing in the ears Difficulty or labored breathing[cancer.uvahealth.com]
  • Arsenic can also cause a range of neurological effects, including "headaches" and vision problems. It can cause noticeable behavioral changes, most commonly aggression or "depression".[curezone.org]
Dizziness
  • Clinical features include facial flushing, pruritus, erythromelalgia, headaches, and dizziness. Severe complications such as thrombotic events (e.g., stroke, Budd-Chiari syndrome) may occur.[amboss.com]
  • When left untreated, these headaches can intensify, leading to dizziness, lightheadedness, and overall feelings of weakness. If these feelings become a part of your daily routine, be sure to talk to your doctor. ADVERTISEMENT[activebeat.com]
  • These include: headaches blurred vision red skin – particularly in the face, hands and feet tiredness high blood pressure dizziness discomfort in the tummy confusion bleeding problems – such as nosebleeds and bruising gout – which can cause joint pain[nhs.uk]
  • Polycythemia Vera clinical features: Face appears suffused with blood, retinal veins are engorged, frequent headaches, dizziness, blurred vision and tinnitus.[quizlet.com]
  • As the disease progresses, symptoms may include: headaches; tiredness; itchy skin, especially after a hot shower; tingling or burning feeling in the hands and feet; dizziness; tinnitus (ringing in the ears); chest pain; abdominal discomfort due to an[mydr.com.au]
Papilledema
  • Orbital Lesions Cystic 359 Orofacial Pain 360 OsgoodSchlatter Disease 361 Osteoporosis 362 Otitis Externa 363 Ovarian Mass 364 Pagets Disease of Bone 365 Pain Midfoot 366 Pain Posterior Heel 367 Palpitations 368 Pancreatitis Acute 369 Panic Disorder 370 Papilledema[books.google.de]
Trichotillomania
  • Disorders 471 Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy 472 Thrombophlebitis Superficial 473 Thyroid Nodule 474 TickRelated Infections 475 Tinea Corporis 476 Tinea Versicolor Pityriasis Versicolor 477 Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis 478 Toxoplasmosis 479 Tracheitis 480 Trichotillomania[books.google.de]

Workup

  • The initial workup of erythrocytosis is dependant on the probability of polycythemia vera as the underlying cause. A serum erythropoietin level is usually the first step.[thebigl.co]
Left Axis Deviation
  • Axis Deviation 298 Leg Length Discrepancies 299 Leg Ulcers 300 LeggCalvéPerthes Disease 301 Leptomeningeal Lesions 302 Leukoplakia Oral Hairy Oral Hairy Cell Leukoplakia 303 Lichen Simplex Chronicus 304 Listeriosis 305 Liver Lesions Benign Often Confused[books.google.de]
Decreased Plasma Volume
  • In relative (spurious) erythrocytosis, the RBC mass is normal and the elevated Hct is caused by a decreased plasma volume (see Table 95.3 ). This is also referred to as stress polycythemia or Gaisböck's syndrome.[163.178.103.176]
  • Relative/pseudo polycythaemia occurs due to decreased plasma volume. This may occur due to dehydration (eg vomiting, diarrhoea, diuretics) A special form of relative polycythaemia is Gaisbocks.[mrcpandme.blogspot.com]
  • It results from decreasing plasma volume and subsequent hemoconcentration. This disease is also known as relative polycythemia, stress erythrocytosis, stress polycythemia, benign polycythemia. Gaisböck's syndrome, and pseudopolycythemia.[doctor-clinic.org]
  • Polycythaemia can be relative (decreased plasma volume) or true polycythaemia.[rcpa.edu.au]

Treatment

  • After 6 months of treatment, the TOS, OSI and MDA levels were significantly decreased in treated patients compared to before treatment.[karger.com]
  • It discusses the clinical background of cross-resistance and treatment with stress-hormones. It addresses the diseases of adaptation or stress diseases, diagnostic indicators, and functional changes.[books.google.com]
  • […] mechanics, pathophysiology, methods and comparative studies; Hemodynamics, covering basic principles, microcirculation, in vivo effects, endothelium and methods; and Clinical Aspects of Hemorheology, covering hyperviscosity, clinical significance and treatment[books.google.com]
  • The medicines will usually be tested against another treatment called a control. This will either be a dummy treatment (a placebo) or a standard treatment already in use.[nhs.uk]
  • Once we've approved your claim, you'll get the private treatment you need. 3 And we’ll pay for treatment After you've been treated, send us your invoices.[aviva.co.uk]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis of polycythemia Rubra Vera Mostly prognosis is good and the median survival is 10 to 16 years. The major complications are thrombosis and hemorrhage.[labpedia.net]
  • Polycythemia Vera prognosis: Chronic disease- patient lives 10-20 years with therapy. In 15-20% of patients, after about 10 years the disease gives rise to a "spent" stage. Life expectancy is then about 3 years. Bone marrow becomes fibrotic.[quizlet.com]
  • Prognosis If you have PV, your prognosis depends on many factors including your age, other illnesses you have, and PV complications you may develop with PV.[mpnvoice.org.uk]
  • Prognosis Curing or removing the underlying cause of this disorder generally eliminates the symptoms. Resources OTHER "Secondary Erythrocytosis." The Merck Page. June 3, 1998. 〈 〉.[encyclopedia.com]

Etiology

  • PV is a disorder of unknown etiology involving a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell that is characterized by the accumulation of phenotypically normal red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the absence of a definable cause; extramedullary[raysahelian.com]

Epidemiology

  • The February 2009 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention article, reported on by Newswies.com pointed to the connection between environmental toxins and the number of people affected by this rare disease.[glutathionediseasecure.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Some factors that possibly could play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome were ruled out and other factors not studied here were considered for future investigation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sections of the Handbook include History of Hemorheology; Hemorheology, covering basic aspects, blood composition, blood rheology, cell mechanics, pathophysiology, methods and comparative studies; Hemodynamics, covering basic principles, microcirculation[books.google.com]
  • The pathophysiology of smokers polycythemia is believed to be multifactorial. Suspected causes include a reduced plasma volume and an elevated red cell mass secondary to increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin.[thebigl.co]
  • Pathophysiology The JAK2 ( Janus kinase 2 ) oncogene codes for a tyrosine kinase in hematopoietic progenitor cells.[amboss.com]
  • PCV raised Hemoglobin raised 18 g/dL male 17 g/dL female 15 g/dL hematocrit raised male 60% female 56% Pathophysiology Types of absolute Polycythemia. There are two types : Primary polycythemia (also known as polycythemia rubra vera).[labpedia.net]

Prevention

  • The major goal of the treatment is to prevent thrombotic complications and haemorrhages. The amount of red blood cells is kept within the normal range (haematocrit 0.45, haemoglobin 145 g/l). This prevents cardiovascular deaths and thromboses.[books.google.de]
  • In response to increased oxidative stress, living organisms develop an antioxidant defense to prevent the harmful effects of free oxygen radicals.[karger.com]
  • The important question now: Is there a treatment, are there preventative steps to take and what are they. The Science of the Disease To look for a cure, treatment, or how to prevent it will require looking at the science behind it.[glutathionediseasecure.com]
  • Treatment options include the following: Phlebotomy Chemotherapy Aspirin Prevention There are no known preventative measures that will reduce your chances of getting primary polycythemia; the condition is not contagious.[cancer.uvahealth.com]
  • Therapy must also include appropriate measures to prevent continuing fluid loss.[doctor-clinic.org]

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