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Stress Polycythemia

Gaisböck Syndrome


Presentation

  • A case of stress polycythemia without symptoms of cerebral ischemia is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Stress in Health and Disease presents the principal pathways mediating the response to a stressor. It discusses the clinical background of cross-resistance and treatment with stress-hormones.[books.google.com]
  • Splenomegaly absent absent present in 75% of the cases 9. Hepatomegaly absent absent present in 35% of the cases 10. Heart or lung disease absent present absent 11. Cyanosis may be present present absent Possible References Used Back to tests[labpedia.net]
  • He is presenting with significant symptoms of hyperviscosity and should be considered to be at significant risk of thrombotic complications.[brainscape.com]
  • It presents with bruising, bleeding and cerebrovascular symptoms.[medassignments.com]
Fatigue
  • See also altitude sickness , erythrocytosis . observations Clinical manifestations for polycythemia include weakness and fatigue; headache and vertigo; visual disturbances (scotoma, double or blurred vision); dyspnea; nosebleeds; night sweats; and epigastric[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Fatigue. Headache. Light-headedness. Shortness of breath. Night sweats. Gastrointestinal.. Paresthesias. Pruritus. Visual disturbance.[healthatoz.info]
  • We ask about general symptoms (anxious mood, depressed mood, fatigue, pain, and stress) regardless of condition. Last updated: November 26, 2018[patientslikeme.com]
  • Fatigue and headache were common, and syncopal attacks occurred in four patients.[nejm.org]
  • […] bleeding due to a cut or a nosebleed Intense and frequent bone pain and/or muscle pain Headaches, lightheadedness or gastrointestinal symptoms Vision problems Ringing in the ears Difficulty or labored breathing The color of the skin appears reddish Fatigue[cancer.uvahealth.com]
Thyroid Nodule
  • Nodule 474 TickRelated Infections 475 Tinea Corporis 476 Tinea Versicolor Pityriasis Versicolor 477 Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis 478 Toxoplasmosis 479 Tracheitis 480 Trichotillomania 481 Tropical Sprue 482 Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease 483 Tumor Markers[books.google.de]
Hypertension
  • Some of these patients are on diuretic therapy for hypertension, which further contracts plasma volume. Again, hematological diagnosis by estimation of blood volume is needed for certainty and rational management.[alpfmedical.info]
  • Secondary polycythemia may display hypoxemia in the absence of hepatosplenomegaly and hypertension.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] stress polycythemia a chronic type of relative polycythemia , seen most often in middle-aged, mildly obese males who are active, anxiety-prone, and hypertensive, occurring without the characteristic symptoms associated with polycythemia vera , i.e., without[medicine.academic.ru]
  • 400 Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder 401 Pronator Syndrome 402 Proteinuria 403 Pruritus Ani 404 Pseudofolliculitis Barbae Ingrown Hairs Razor Bumps 405 Pseudoinfarction 406 Psittacosis 407 Ptosis 408 Puberty Delayed 409 Puberty Precocious 410 Pulmonary Hypertension[books.google.de]
  • Tepel M: Oxidative stress: does it play a role in the genesis of essential hypertension and hypertension of uraemia? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003;18:1439-1442. Madamanchi NR, Vendrow A, Runge MS: Oxidative stress and vascular diseases.[karger.com]
Flushing
  • Weakness, fatigue, headache, blood clotting, vertigo, tinnitus, irritability, dyspnea, visual disturbances, flushing of face, redness, or ruddy cyanosis, pruritus, ecchymosis, hypertension, epigastric distress, weight loss, and pain in joints or extremities[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Clinical features include facial flushing , pruritus , erythromelalgia , headaches, and dizziness. Severe complications such as thrombotic events (e.g., stroke , Budd-Chiari syndrome) may occur.[amboss.com]
  • Of course it’s not just the flushing that seems to last for hours, it’s the severe mental impairment that comes and stays with the episodes.[curezone.org]
  • Effects upon fishes of a periodic flushing of electrical power plants boiler tubes with chlorine. M.A. Thesis, Southern Illinois Univ. at carbondale. 37 pp. Google Scholar Davidsohn, I. & D. A. Nelson. 1969. The blood. pp. 120–330. In: I.[link.springer.com]
  • On examination, he had obvious truncal obesity and a flushed complexion. Blood pressure was 128/82 mmHg, heart rate 78/min, respiratory rate 16/min and oxygen saturations 99% on air.[brainscape.com]
Vaginal Bleeding
  • Bleeding Pregnancy 492 Varicocele 493 Vasculitis Diseases That Mimic Vasculitis 494 Venous Lake 495 Ventricular Septal Defect 496 Vesiculobullous Diseases 497 Vesiculopustules Newborn Infants 498 Vision Loss Chronic Progressive 499 Vocal Cord Paralysis[books.google.de]
Pelvic Pain
  • Pain Chronic 379 Pemphigus Vulgaris 380 Peptic Ulcer Disease 381 Pericarditis 382 Peritoneal Carcinomatosis 383 Peritonitis Secondary 384 Periumbilical Swelling 385 Photodermatoses 386 Pinworms 387 Pityriasis Alba 388 Pleural Effusions 389 Pneumonia[books.google.de]
Dysuria
  • Versicolor Pityriasis Versicolor 477 Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis 478 Toxoplasmosis 479 Tracheitis 480 Trichotillomania 481 Tropical Sprue 482 Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease 483 Tumor Markers Elevation 484 Turners Syndrome 485 Urethral Discharge and Dysuria[books.google.de]
Headache
  • This may cause sluggishness, irritability, headache, dizziness, fainting, disturbances of sensation in the hands and feet, and a feeling of fullness in the head. There may be episodes of acute pain as spontaneous clots occur in the blood vessels.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • One visible symptom of polycythemia vera are headaches, according to this research from the National Institutes of Health . By reducing blood flow to the brain, painful headaches can become quite common.[activebeat.com]
  • Headache. Light-headedness. Shortness of breath. Night sweats. Gastrointestinal.. Paresthesias. Pruritus. Visual disturbance.[healthatoz.info]
  • Clinical features include facial flushing , pruritus , erythromelalgia , headaches, and dizziness. Severe complications such as thrombotic events (e.g., stroke , Budd-Chiari syndrome) may occur.[amboss.com]
  • Fatigue and headache were common, and syncopal attacks occurred in four patients.[nejm.org]
Dizziness
  • Clinical features include facial flushing , pruritus , erythromelalgia , headaches, and dizziness. Severe complications such as thrombotic events (e.g., stroke , Budd-Chiari syndrome) may occur.[amboss.com]
  • This may cause sluggishness, irritability, headache, dizziness, fainting, disturbances of sensation in the hands and feet, and a feeling of fullness in the head. There may be episodes of acute pain as spontaneous clots occur in the blood vessels.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • When left untreated, these headaches can intensify, leading to dizziness, lightheadedness, and overall feelings of weakness. If these feelings become a part of your daily routine, be sure to talk to your doctor. ADVERTISEMENT[activebeat.com]
  • Symptom Relatively erythrocytosis symptoms Common symptoms Red blood cells Diluted skin color Red red anxiety Dizziness Circulation failure Erythrocytes are in money Temporary polycythemia, dehydration and lack of water intake of the cause of the main[healthfrom.com]
  • Polycythemia Vera clinical features: Face appears suffused with blood, retinal veins are engorged, frequent headaches, dizziness, blurred vision and tinnitus.[quizlet.com]
Lethargy
  • These included “feeding problems” (21.8%), plethora (20.0%), lethargy (14.5%), cyanosis (14.5%), respiratory distress (9.1%), jitteriness (7.3%), and hypotonia (7.3%). Other findings included hypoglycemia (40.0%) and hyperbilirubinemia (21.8%).[medtextfree.wordpress.com]
Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • Cognitive Impairment 325 Mitral Regurgitation 326 Monoarthritis Acute 327 Mononucleosis 328 Mucormycosis 329 Mumps 330 Muscle Weakness 331 Muscular Dystrophy 332 Mycosis Fungoides 333 Myelodysplastic Syndrome 334 Myocarditis 335 Myoglobinuria 336 Myopathies[books.google.de]
Chronic Anxiety
  • Behavioral/emotional stress and chronic anxiety have been shown to cause changes in hemorheologic measures, possibly due to increases in catecholamines and blood pressure [18] .[journals.plos.org]

Workup

  • The initial workup of erythrocytosis is dependant on the probability of polycythemia vera as the underlying cause. A serum erythropoietin level is usually the first step.[thebigl.co]
  • See Presentation and Workup . To the extent that the increased RBCs alleviate tissue hypoxia, secondary polycythemia may in fact be beneficial.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Right Axis Deviation
  • Axis Deviation 427 Rosacea 428 Salivary Gland Enlargement 429 Sarcoidosis 430 Schistosomiasis 431 Scrotal Pain 432 Seasonal Affective Disorder 433 Seizures Absence 434 Septicemia 435 Serotonin Syndrome 436 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Anorectal Region[books.google.de]
Left Axis Deviation
  • Axis Deviation 298 Leg Length Discrepancies 299 Leg Ulcers 300 LeggCalvéPerthes Disease 301 Leptomeningeal Lesions 302 Leukoplakia Oral Hairy Oral Hairy Cell Leukoplakia 303 Lichen Simplex Chronicus 304 Listeriosis 305 Liver Lesions Benign Often Confused[books.google.de]
Decreased Plasma Volume
  • In relative (spurious) erythrocytosis, the RBC mass is normal and the elevated Hct is caused by a decreased plasma volume (see Table 95.3 ). This is also referred to as stress polycythemia or Gaisböck's syndrome.[163.178.103.176]
  • Relative/pseudo polycythaemia occurs due to decreased plasma volume. This may occur due to dehydration (eg vomiting, diarrhoea, diuretics) A special form of relative polycythaemia is Gaisbocks.[mrcpandme.blogspot.com]
  • It results from decreasing plasma volume and subsequent hemoconcentration. This disease is also known as relative polycythemia, stress erythrocytosis, stress polycythemia, benign polycythemia. Gaisböck's syndrome, and pseudopolycythemia.[doctor-clinic.org]
  • Polycythaemia can be relative (decreased plasma volume) or true polycythaemia.[rcpa.edu.au]
Hematocrit Increased
  • In addition, drinking can also increase the red blood cells, acute drinking and chronic alcohol addiction can make respiratory depression, nocturnal snoring and sleep dyspnea, indirect increase in erythropoiesis, reduced plasma volume and hematocrit increased[healthfrom.com]

Treatment

  • More than 300 disorders and treatments are covered in alphabetical order in a consistent quick-reference format, with icons, sidebars, alerts, illustrations, and tables to highlight key points.[books.google.com]
  • After 6 months of treatment, the TOS, OSI and MDA levels were significantly decreased in treated patients compared to before treatment.[karger.com]
  • Research on treatment modalities is ongoing.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • It discusses the clinical background of cross-resistance and treatment with stress-hormones. It addresses the diseases of adaptation or stress diseases, diagnostic indicators, and functional changes.[books.google.com]

Prognosis

  • Long‐term follow‐up of this patient will be required to show whether the remission of proteinuria indicates resolution of the renal changes and a good prognosis.[academic.oup.com]
  • Prognosis of polycythemia Rubra Vera Mostly prognosis is good and the median survival is 10 to 16 years. The major complications are thrombosis and hemorrhage.[labpedia.net]
  • Polycythemia Vera prognosis: Chronic disease- patient lives 10-20 years with therapy. In 15-20% of patients, after about 10 years the disease gives rise to a "spent" stage. Life expectancy is then about 3 years. Bone marrow becomes fibrotic.[quizlet.com]
  • Prognosis If you have PV, your prognosis depends on many factors including your age, other illnesses you have, and PV complications you may develop with PV.[mpnvoice.org.uk]

Etiology

  • There are two distinct forms of the disease: Primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera) is a myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Introduction Etiology Prevention Complication Symptom Examine Diagnosis Treatment Basic Nursing Introduction Introduction to relative erythrocytosis Relative erythrocytosis is due to reduced plasma volume and relative erythrocytosis, mainly seen in transient[healthfrom.com]
  • PV is a disorder of unknown etiology involving a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell that is characterized by the accumulation of phenotypically normal red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the absence of a definable cause; extramedullary[raysahelian.com]
  • Leopold SS: The etiology of pulmonary arteriosclerosis (Ayerza’s syndrome). Am J Med 219:152, 1950. 9. Abbott ME: Atlas of Congenital Heart Disease. American Heart Association, New York, 1936. 10.[medtextfree.wordpress.com]
  • Subjects with any active medical illnesses that could be etiologically related to the ongoing depressive episode (e.g. untreated hypothyroidism, cardiovascular accident within the past 6 months, uncontrolled hypertension or diabetes), and who were pregnant[journals.plos.org]

Epidemiology

  • He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Epidemiology The frequency of secondary polycythemia depends on the underlying disease. The mortality and morbidity of secondary polycythemia depend on the underlying condition. Tefferi A, Barbui T.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The February 2009 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention article, reported on by Newswies.com pointed to the connection between environmental toxins and the number of people affected by this rare disease.[glutathionediseasecure.com]
  • Modan B: An epidemiological study of polycythemia vera. Blood 26:657, 1965. 30. Berglund S, Zettervall O: Incidence of polycythemia vera in a defined population. Eur J Haematol 48:20, 1992. 31.[medtextfree.wordpress.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Some factors that possibly could play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome were ruled out and other factors not studied here were considered for future investigation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sections of the Handbook include History of Hemorheology; Hemorheology, covering basic aspects, blood composition, blood rheology, cell mechanics, pathophysiology, methods and comparative studies; Hemodynamics, covering basic principles, microcirculation[books.google.com]
  • The pathophysiology of smokers polycythemia is believed to be multifactorial. Suspected causes include a reduced plasma volume and an elevated red cell mass secondary to increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin.[thebigl.co]
  • Pathophysiology The JAK2 ( Janus kinase 2 ) oncogene ; codes for a tyrosine kinase in hematopoietic progenitor cells.[amboss.com]

Prevention

  • Rest should be balanced with exercise, but the patient should be advised that activity and ambulation help prevent thrombotic complications.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • In response to increased oxidative stress, living organisms develop an antioxidant defense to prevent the harmful effects of free oxygen radicals.[karger.com]
  • The major goal of the treatment is to prevent thrombotic complications and haemorrhages. The amount of red blood cells is kept within the normal range (haematocrit 0.45, haemoglobin 145 g/l). This prevents cardiovascular deaths and thromboses .[books.google.de]
  • Prevention Relatively prevention of erythrocytosis Usually should instruct the patient living section, keep the mood comfortable, correct treatment of the disease, establish the confidence to overcome the disease, or seven emotions hurt the disease worse[healthfrom.com]
  • Therapy must also include appropriate measures to prevent continuing fluid loss.[doctor-clinic.org]

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