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Sudden Cardiac Death

SCD


Presentation

  • We present this case with future plan to study the genetic map of his family.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We would like to present a survivor of sudden cardiac death presenting with ventricular fibrillation due to spontaneous coronary artery dissection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The index patient presented with advanced DCM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A forensic autopsy was performed postmoterm and thoracic and abdominal aortic dissection along the root of ascending aorta was present and massive hematoma within right and left thorax was present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of monozygotic twins with HCM who both had a cardiac arrest post physical exertion in 63rd year of their lives.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Severe Clinical Course
  • After a severe clinical course, the baby had external left ventricular assist as a bridge to heart transplantation. 1.5 months after transplantation, the baby suffered sudden cardiac death (SCD) despite maximal treatment in the pediatric intensive care[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Jaw Pain
  • pain, or nausea) of chest pain, they may go unrecognized. 22 In addition, reports have indicated that the risk factors for and pathophysiology of SCD may differ in younger versus older women.[oadoi.org]

Workup

  • For athletes with documented or suspected heart disease of any kind, including arrhythmias, the book presents practical guidelines for diagnostic workup, therapy, recommendations about exercise, and eligibility for athletic competition.[amazon.com]
  • The focus is on exclusion of known phenotypes/genotypes or, alternatively, the blind workup of a relative of an undiagnosed cardiac arrest.[patient.info]
  • Procainamide testing may provoke a Brugada pattern irrespective of the baseline ECG and should be considered in the workup of SCD. 66 Cardiac MRI (ARVC, sarcoidosis, myocarditis, myocardial injury from coronary spasm).[aerjournal.com]
  • […] natriuretic peptide (BNP) Other tests to evaluate or predict risk of SCD Imaging studies: Chest radiography, echocardiography, nuclear scintigraphy Electrocardiography (ECG): Including, possibly, signal-averaged ECG Coronary angiography Electrophysiology See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Ejection Fraction Decreased
  • fraction decreases below 35%. 63 Thus, if the patients’ ejection fraction was closer to 35%, these older patients may derive less or no benefit.[circ.ahajournals.org]
Narrow QRS Complex
  • An ECG from patient 12 (Table ), taken 6 months before death, showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response and narrow QRS complexes.[doi.org]
  • Cardiac-resynchronization therapy in heart failure with narrow QRS complexes. N Engl J Med. 357 : 2007 ; 2461–71. Crossref Medline Google Scholar 227 Gasparini M, Auricchio A, Regoli F, et al.[doi.org]
  • Cardiac-resynchronization therapy in heart failure with narrow QRS complexes. N Engl J Med . 357 : 2007 ; 2461–71. Crossref Medline Google Scholar 227 Gasparini M, Auricchio A, Regoli F, et al.[circ.ahajournals.org]
  • NarrowQRS-complex (SVT) tachycardias (QRS Sinus tachycardia Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter AV nodal reentry Accessory pathway–mediated tachycardia Atrial tachycardia (including automatic and reentry forms) Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) Junctional[doi.org]
Wide QRS Complex
  • The patient was initially presumed to have hyperkalemia, based on the appearance of wide QRS complexes on the monitor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Lack of effectiveness of lidocaine for sustained, wide QRS complex tachycardia. Ann Emerg Med. 1989 ; 18 :254–257. Crossref Medline Google Scholar 414. Exner DV, Muzyka T, Gillis AM.[doi.org]
  • Type II second-degree AV block is characterized by fixed PR intervals before and after blocked beats and is usually associated with a wide QRS complex.[doi.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment in a Hospital If you survive SCA, you'll likely be admitted to a hospital for ongoing care and treatment. In the hospital, your medical team will closely watch your heart.[web.archive.org]
  • Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased in the drug treatment group to 12.8%, as compared with 6.2% in the no treatment group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patient survival 24 hours after shock treatment was 100%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) happens without warning and requires emergency treatment. Doctors rarely diagnose SCA with medical tests as it's happening. Instead, SCA often is diagnosed after it happens.[nhlbi.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Various studies suggest a potential application of biomarkers in diagnostics, prognosis and treatment response. Further approaches include microRNAs or multimarker approaches.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All of these blood levels tend to be abnormal in the most functionally impaired patient, so they tend to separate the patient with a very bad prognosis from a bad prognosis.[content.onlinejacc.org]
  • Prognosis Sudden cardiac death is reversible in most people if treatment is begun quickly.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Baker -- Determination of Neurological Prognosis / Cara Klajbor and Erica Schuyler -- Therapeutic Hypothermia as a Treatment of Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock / David Erlinge. Responsabilità: Justin B. Lundbye, editor.[worldcat.org]
  • The worst cardiac prognosis was seen in patients receiving diuretics or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors who had not suffered a definite myocardial infarction, regardless of age.[doi.org]

Etiology

  • Currently, the etiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of ECPA are unknown. Cases of ECPA with a history of allergic disorders are rare. Only one case of ECPA with tissue eosinophilia in another organ has been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiologies include congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, primary arrhythmia syndromes, and miscellaneous conditions. Challenges in the diagnosis and prevention of SCD in the young are reviewed. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This Clinical Review attempts to offer refinements to the current practice of SCD risk assessment among patients with NICM, with specific focus on importance of NICM etiology and efforts to identify myocardial scarring and arrhythmogenic substrate, both[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology affecting any organ, microscopically characterized by noncaseating granulomata. Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis has been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The genetic anticipation of HCM and its associated etiology, sudden cardiac death (SCD), remains unclear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The epidemiology and pathophysiology of SCA are linked, in that mechanisms of SCA can be modeled based on substrate and expression characteristics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A review of 57 cases of cardiac IMTs reported in the literature in terms of epidemiology, clinical presentation, histologic and immunohistologic features, and outcome is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review highlights current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and risk factors for sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we described the epidemiological characteristics and reported the pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic challenges, and forensic implications of Chinese ARVC autopsy cases. METHODS: Two cases of sudden cardiac death owing to ARVC were reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Electronic address: tereshch@ohsu.edu. 2 Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Medicine, Cardiology Section, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, United States. 3 University[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The epidemiology and pathophysiology of SCA are linked, in that mechanisms of SCA can be modeled based on substrate and expression characteristics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cardiac imaging provides the opportunity to assess left ventricular ejection fraction, strain, fibrosis, and sympathetic innervation, all of which are pathophysiologically related to SCD risk.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Better risk stratification is needed to improve care and should be guided by direct pathophysiologic markers of arrhythmic substrate, such as specific left ventricular structural abnormalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review highlights current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and risk factors for sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Currently, the etiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of ECPA are unknown. Cases of ECPA with a history of allergic disorders are rare. Only one case of ECPA with tissue eosinophilia in another organ has been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Trials have demonstrated that implantable-cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Therapeutic measures to prevent SCD are also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The ultimate goal of the Think Tank was to spark initiatives that lead to the development of a rational, reliable, and sustainable national health care resource focused on SCDY prevention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We then examine strategies for prevention, including the use of specific cardiac medications and device-based therapies such as implantable defibrillators.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: We describe the study protocol of the first multicenter retrospective cohort of primary prevention ICD patients with recorded at baseline digital 12-lead ECG.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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