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Superficial Phlebitis


Presentation

  • Snapshot A 56-year-old man presents to his physician for pain in his right calf. He noticed his calf appears red and denies any trauma to the affected area. A week prior to presentation, he was flying on a plane for 14 hours.[medbullets.com]
  • Thrombophlebitis presents itself with many symptoms, such as pain and swelling, but DVT is more difficult to diagnose as it can remain symptomless.[belmarrahealth.com]
  • It is for this reason that the general consensus is that patients who present with signs and symptoms of an SP or STP should be evaluated by some diagnostic test, usually ultrasound, to rule out underlying DVT.[journals.lww.com]
  • When symptoms are present, they are similar to those of many other health conditions, so it is important to know if you are at risk of developing Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).[venousinstitute.com]
Leg Pain
  • Common Symptoms Include: Leg pain or tenderness Leg swelling Discoloration of leg; usually blue, purple, or red Regardless of the cause, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) can be particularly dangerous if left untreated.[venousinstitute.com]
  • Since the leg pain associated with DVT is very similar to muscle pain, your doctor might look for signs of swelling and enlargement of the calf due to swollen leg veins. A diagnosis of DVT is usually confirmed with a compression ultrasound.[medbroadcast.com]

Workup

  • (See Etiology, Presentation, and Workup .) Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical textbooks.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • CONCLUSION: Topical heparin is safe and effective for the treatment of superficial phlebitis secondary to indwelling intravenous catheter.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The evaluated treatment modalities consisted of a topical treatment (11 studies), an oral treatment (2 studies) and a parenteral treatment (2 studies).[cochrane.org]
  • . 1 The review concluded that the available evidence on oral treatments, topical treatment, and surgery was too limited to inform clinical practice about the effects of these treatments on venous thromboembolism or superficial thrombophlebitis extension[bmj.com]

Prognosis

  • […] high-dose estrogen therapy malignancy immobilization Pathogenesis endothelial injury can trigger thrombus formation and an inflammatory response Associated conditions deep venous thrombosis Buerger disease migratory thrombophlebitis (Trousseau syndrome) Prognosis[medbullets.com]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) This is often a short-term condition that does not cause complications. Symptoms often go away in 1 to 2 weeks. Hardness of the vein may remain for much longer. Possible Complications Complications are rare.[ufhealth.org]
  • Prognosis The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, though it can occur, particularly if the process extends into a deep vein.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Infectious, mainly syphilis and psittacosis Mondor disease Rare presentation of anterior chest/breast veins of women System(s) affected: cardiovascular Synonym(s): phlebitis; phlebothrombosis Geriatric Considerations Septic thrombophlebitis is more common; prognosis[unboundmedicine.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology Risk factors The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, DVT, and PE.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology Similar to deep venous thrombosis; Virchow triad of vessel trauma, stasis, and hypercoagulability (genetic, iatrogenic, or idiopathic) Varicose veins play a primary role in etiology of lower extremity phlebitis.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Etiology There are a large number of potential causes which does overlap with the causes of DVT 4 : varicose veins (most common) morphological changes that predispose to stasis and consequently to the development of thrombotic process prolonged immobilization[radiopaedia.org]
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY, ETIOLOGY, CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES The incidence of superficial thrombophlebitis (STP) in the general population ranges from 3% to 11%, 1-5 although this is considered to be an underestimate as only the more symptomatic[phlebolymphology.org]
  • […] manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10data.com]

Epidemiology

  • Ann Intern Med 2010; 152:218 / Superficial venous thrombosis and venous thromboembolism: a large, prospective epidemiologic study / Decousus H., et al. Creager, Mark; Loscalzo, Joseph; Beckman, Joshua A. (30 August 2012).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Introduction Clinical definition a thrombotic disorder characterized by thrombi and inflammation (phlebitis) in the superficial veins Epidemiology demographics women men more common in adults location most commonly in the lower extremities can also occur[medbullets.com]
  • Recent findings in the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of superficial-vein thrombosis. Thromb Res. 2011;127(suppl 3):S81-S85. 6. Decousus H, Epinat M, Guillot K, Quenet S, Boissier C, Tardy B.[phlebolymphology.org]
  • Recent findings in the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of superficial-vein thrombosis. Thrombosis Res 2011 ; 127 (suppl 3): S81 -5. Rosendaal FR. Thrombosis in the young: epidemiology and risk factors. A focus on venous thrombosis.[bmj.com]
  • Epidemiology/pathophysiology Figure 1. Superficial thrombophlebitis presents as a sudden onset of leg discomfort with firm inflamed varicosities.[lermagazine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Images are linked to descriptions of pathophysiologic processes so that readers clearly understand the clinical significance of sonographic findings.[books.google.com]
  • Mondor disease pathophysiology not completely understood Less commonly due to infection (i.e., septic) Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Peptostreptococcus sp. Candida sp.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Epidemiology/pathophysiology Figure 1. Superficial thrombophlebitis presents as a sudden onset of leg discomfort with firm inflamed varicosities.[lermagazine.com]
  • Pathophysiology Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention There is nothing certain rule for preventing the superficial thrmbophlebitis, but certain measures can help to prevent the event, such as Avoid prolongs sitting or lie down position.[healthsurgical.com]
  • The antiphlebitic mixture effectively prevented superficial infusion phlebitis in patients receiving dextrose-saline solutions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention of Thrombophlebitis Some cases of thrombophlebitis can be prevented by simply eliminating as much of the risk factors as possible. For example, if you quit smoking, it reduces your risk of thrombophlebitis.[healthpages.org]
  • Treatment and prevention of phlebitis Compression stockings and wraps can be effective for treating discomfort associated with phlebitis.[belmarrahealth.com]
  • Treatment The treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis mainly aims to reduce inflammation and pain and also prevent complications (deep vein thrombosis).[vr.net.au]

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