Superior vena cava thrombosis is a potentially life-threatening clinical entity that mainly arises from the use of central venous catheters that may promote thrombosis and obstruction of this major vessel. Swelling of the head and neck, flushing, cyanosis, respiratory distress, and neurological deficits comprise the clinical presentation. The initial diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds, but imaging studies such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sometimes standard contrast venography, are used to confirm superior vena cava thrombosis.
Superior vena cava thrombosis has a potential to result in superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). SVCS is a well-known disorder that stems from the obstruction of the superior vena cava. By far, the most common cause of SVCS are malignancies - carcinomas of the lungs, lymphoma, mediastinal tumors, or metastatic deposits      . Thrombotic events in the superior vena cava constitute the significant proportion of the remaining SVCS cases  . The presence of indwelling intravascular devices is the main predisposing factor to superior vena cava thrombosis  . In fact, virtually any condition that causes mechanical obstruction of blood flow through this vessel can have prothrombotic effects . The clinical presentation of superior vena cava thrombosis focuses on the head and neck area, with main complaints being a sense of head fullness accompanied by flushing and swelling of the face and neck   . Respiratory manifestations such as dyspnea and stridor are not uncommon, particularly when thrombosis develops suddenly  . Other findings include prominent dilation of veins on the neck, the trunk, and the upper extremities, cyanosis, and neurological deficits . Embolization is a rare but important and possibly life-threatening complication that may occur in superior vena cava thrombosis  .
Entire Body System
- Vascular Disease
You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older. [icdlist.com]
[…] heart disease Heart muscle disease ( cardiomyopathy ) Pericardial disease Aorta disease and Marfan syndrome Vascular disease ( blood vessel disease) It’s the leading cause of death in the U.S. [webmd.com]
These procedures are generally performed by a trained radiologist or vascular surgeon. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
VASCULAR DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2017;14(7):E157-E159. [vasculardiseasemanagement.com]
Nonmalignant causes include mediastinal fibrosis; vascular diseases (eg, aortic aneurysm, large-vessel vasculitis); infections such as histoplasmosis, tuberculosis, syphilis, and actinomycosis; benign mediastinal tumors such as teratoma, cystic hygroma [mdedge.com]
Face, Head & Neck
- Lip Edema
Unfractionated heparin infusion was started with improvement in her facial and lip edema. Figure 1: Active dermatomyositis. Figure 2: CT chest showing superior vena cava (SVC). [criticalcare.imedpub.com]
[…] or dyspnea 2 Coughing or pleurisy 1 Facial signs Lip edema, nasal obstruction or epistaxis 2 Facial edema 1 Vessel dilation Neck, face or arms 1 Imaging Chest imaging is an important diagnostic tool that can frequently be used to find the abnormality [springerplus.springeropen.com]
- Head and Neck Swelling
Yamagami , employing only stenting, elegantly showed clinical improvement in edema of extremities, swelling of the face, and head and neck. [ctsnet.org]
A thorough clinical and imaging assessment is necessary to make the diagnosis of superior vena cava thrombosis. A properly obtained patient history can point to an existing condition that could predispose to the symptoms observed during the physical examination. Furthermore, a localized head and neck symptomatology with distended venous vessels are highly suggestive of an ongoing process in the superior vena cava, especially in the presence of a central venous catheter. When clinical suspicion is raised, imaging studies should be employed as soon as possible. Until recently, conventional venography was the gold standard for the evaluation of superior vena cava pathology   . The necessity for non-invasive and more sophisticated methods has resulted in the replacement of conventional venography with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  . In fact, multidetector CT (MDCT) is able to delineate the exact changes occurring in this vessel and is sufficient to make the diagnosis of superior vena cava thrombosis. Moreover, it also obtains crucial information for choosing the optimal therapeutic approach . In addition, CT and MRI angiography are described as potentially useful studies .
The clinical features of superior vena cava syndrome disappeared completely 3 d after treatment. No complications were observed and radiological investigations showed blood flow through the thrombus after treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Prognosis SVCS depends on the underlying disease (survival correlate with histology) and response to treatment. [telemedicina.med.muni.cz]
Prognosis The prognosis depends on the underlying cause of SVCS. In cases of SVCS caused by lung cancers, the prognosis is generally rather poor since SVCS does not generally occur until the later stages of these diseases. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
As for the prognosis, based on longer series, 5 the most important factors to keep in mind are the state of the disease and tumor histology. [archbronconeumol.org]
Early detection improves prognosis and is based on clinical data and imaging studies. We describe 8 cases where the SVCS was the first manifestation of neoplastic diseases. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
However, the ultimate prognosis is of course associated with the underlying condition. [patient.info]
The etiologies of venous thrombosis and thrombogenetic effect of chronic lead exposure are discussed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology. [icd10coded.com]
SVC Syndrome of Nonmalignant Etiology In the developed world, SVC syndrome of nonmalignant etiology (benign SVC syndrome) is usually iatrogenic in origin, most frequently due to indwelling intravenous catheters and pacing leads (Table III). [hemodinamiadelsur.com.ar]
[…] obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC) ( 1 ): ~60% due to malignant causes 20–40% thrombosis or nonmalignant causes Usual course: acute; usually 2 to 4 weeks from onset of symptoms to diagnosis Synonym(s): superior mediastinal syndrome; SVC obstruction Epidemiology [unboundmedicine.com]
3] Synonyms and Keywords: SVC syndrome; superior vena cava obstruction; SVC obstruction; superior mediastinal syndrome; SVCS; SVCO Overview Historical Perspective Pathophysiology Causes Differentiating Superior Vena Cava Syndrome from other Diseases Epidemiology [wikidoc.org]
In children, the most common causes are T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma). [ 5 ] Epidemiology Gender predilection reflects aetiology, with more males than females due to the prevalence of lung [patient.info]
From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Jump to navigation Jump to search Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Histologic diagnosis is essential for choosing appropriate therapy Epidemiology [ edit ] ~15,000 cases in US per year Caused by invasion/compression [en.wikibooks.org]
Epidemiology Etiology 60%-85% of cases of SVC syndrome are due to intrathoracic malignancies, with the remainder due to benign causes. NSCLC accounts for 50% of all malignant causes, followed by by SCLC (25% of malignant cases) and NHL (10%). [clinicaladvisor.com]
Causes malignancy (~90% of cases), most commonly 5 : lung carcinoma lymphoma central venous catheters pacemaker wires fibrosing mediastinitis l uetic aneurysm Behcet disease Pathophysiology In long-standing cases with 60% or more stenosis, collateral [radiopaedia.org]
[…] superior mediastinal syndrome; SVC obstruction Epidemiology Predominant age: all ages, less commonly children and young adults (16 to 30 years) Predominant sex: male > female Incidence 15,000 new cases per year in the United States ( 1 ) Etiology and Pathophysiology [unboundmedicine.com]
Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D.  Maria Fernanda Villarreal, M.D.  Synonyms and Keywords: SVC syndrome; superior vena cava obstruction; SVC obstruction; superior mediastinal syndrome; SVCS; SVCO Overview Historical Perspective Pathophysiology [wikidoc.org]
The pathophysiology of BD remains largely obscure. [thrombosisjournal.biomedcentral.com]
KEYWORDS: Brachiocephalic veins; catheterization, central venous/adverse effects; vena cava, superior; venous thromboembolism/diagnosis/etiology/prevention & control/therapy [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Similarly, a filter in the superior vena cava may prevent pulmonary embolism from an upper extremity thrombus. [aafp.org]
No preventive measures known Commonly Associated Conditions Malignancy: Common: lung, lymphoma, and metastatic breast Less common: germ cell tumors, thymoma, and mesothelioma Hyperthyroidism Infections: tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, syphilis -- To view [unboundmedicine.com]
Prevention SVCS may be prevented by early medical intervention to halt and/or reverse the cancer which, in a later stage, would have lead to SVCS. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Many conditions can cause the blood to clot too much or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. [icdlist.com]
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