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Supernumerary Nipples

Polymastia


Presentation

  • They occur anywhere along the milk line and the supernumerary breast tissue may present as an oval pigmented spot less than half the size of the normal nipple, or may present as another fully developed nipple.[myfertilityguide.biz]
  • If not all simultaneously present (functional breast) or absent (polythelia pilosa), may occur in combinations of two together without the third or may present as one alone without any of the other two.[news-medical.net]
  • We describe a 53-year-old man with an accessory nipple on the left chest who presented with stage IIA testicular seminoma at the age of 47.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The anomalies are organized by anatomical system and presented in a consistent manner, including details of the clinical presentation, epidemiology, embryology, treatment and prevention for each anomaly.[books.google.com]
  • The information presented is not intended to replace medical advice or treatment from your own doctor or healthcare provider.[wellnessadvocate.com]
Rigor
  • By condensing much of the information presented in the first volume of the previous edition, and exercising rigorous editorial control, Drs.[books.google.com]
Heart Murmur
  • Other features frequently associated with VWS include hypodontia in 10-81% of cases, narrow arched palate, congenital heart disease, heart murmur and cerebral abnormalities, syndactyly of the hands, polythelia , ankyloglossia, and adhesions between the[diki.pl]
Stroke
  • He stroked the nipple gently, brushing the supernumerary nipples , no larger than delicious warts, with the ball of his thumb. "The supernumerary nipple ?"[diki.pl]

Workup

  • , cleft palate, and postaxial polydactyly.9 Accessory breast tissue has not been conclusively linked to renal or cardiovascular disorders, however, many clinicians choose to follow up affected patients with renal ultrasound and a full cardiovascular workup[redorbit.com]

Treatment

  • The information presented is not intended to replace medical advice or treatment from your own doctor or healthcare provider.[wellnessadvocate.com]
  • […] and prognosis Most often no treatment is required; however, a protruding embarrassing supernumerary nipple can be removed surgically, if desired.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Treatment and associated medical conditions The discovery of a supernumerary nipple is usually just a chance finding and not associated with any underlying medical pathology.[news-medical.net]
  • Stay at the forefront of your field with updated treatment methods throughout, as well as an increased focus on patients with skin of color.[books.google.de]

Prognosis

  • […] accessory lung lobe Skeletal hand malformation vertebral anomaly absent rib coronal suture synostosis hemihypertrophy arthrogryposis microcephaly Cardiac conduction defect bundle branch block patent ductus arteriosus congenital heart disease Treatment and prognosis[radiopaedia.org]
  • Evidence also exists that ectopic breast cancer carries a poorer prognosis than cancer arising in normal breast tissue; recommendations have been made for regular cancer screening in ectopic breast tissue and consideration of prophylactic resection ([atm.amegroups.com]
  • […] epilepsy and cardiac abnormalities due to corresponding development of mammary tissue and the genitourinary system. [14], [15] Malignancy of EBT without nipple poses diagnostic delay the diagnosis, resulting in earlier and frequent metastasis with poor prognosis[ccij-online.org]
  • Part II of this two-part article reviews the identification and management of birthmarks that appear in the neonatal period, with an emphasis on prognosis and appropriate counseling for parents.[aafp.org]
  • It is important to be able to counsel the patient and his or her family regarding the nature of the problem, its prognosis for future development, and the appropriate indications and timing of surgical intervention.[southfloridaplasticsurgery.com]

Etiology

  • Based on the data that we were able to collect from this rare and unique population, it appears that this strategy would not be helpful in guiding ongoing molecular and etiologic studies.[hccpjournal.biomedcentral.com]
  • Etiology Ulnar-sided polydactyly exhibits strong autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity, often bilateral, and is almost never associated with systemic or syndromic conditions.[dermatologyadvisor.com]
  • The etiology is usually a decreased ratio of testosterone to estradiol, and when testicular function becomes dominant, the hypertrophy resolves.[southfloridaplasticsurgery.com]

Epidemiology

  • The anomalies are organized by anatomical system and presented in a consistent manner, including details of the clinical presentation, epidemiology, embryology, treatment and prevention for each anomaly.[books.google.com]
  • […] tissue and nipple References: eMedicine: Supernumerary Nipple [Accessed 20 August 2018] Terminology Also called pseudomamma Polythelia (3 nipples) is more common than polymastia (ectopic breast tissue) Drawings Images hosted on other servers : Milk lines Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Alliance, Seattle, WA, USA (3) Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA (4) Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes[hccpjournal.biomedcentral.com]
  • Evaluation of comorbidities may include: Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Evaluation (PASE) or Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) Body Mass Index (BMI, ie height, weight, waist circumference) Blood pressure (BP) and electocardiogram (ECG) Blood[infinitypath.com.au]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology of supernumerary nipples During the development of the embryo, between weeks four and five, there is a symmetric ectodermal thickening that occurs along the ventrolateral sides of the embryo.[news-medical.net]
  • The major pathophysiologies encountered in blunt chest trauma involve derangements in the flow of air, blood, sepsis due to leakage of alimentary tract contents, as in esophageal perforations, also must be considered.[wikivisually.com]
  • Pathophysiology Genetic and environmental factors interact during the fourth through seventh weeks of gestation to produce polydactyly.[dermatologyadvisor.com]

Prevention

  • The anomalies are organized by anatomical system and presented in a consistent manner, including details of the clinical presentation, epidemiology, embryology, treatment and prevention for each anomaly.[books.google.com]
  • And are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease. The information presented is not intended to replace medical advice or treatment from your own doctor or healthcare provider.[wellnessadvocate.com]
  • Although such tissue does not have an increased malignant potential compared with the normal breast and prophylactic excision for cancer prevention is not required, routine screening should be performed with periodic physical examination and radiologic[crutchfielddermatology.com]
  • Getting regular physicals and letting your doctor know that you have extra nipples can help prevent any possible complications. A third nipple, also known as a supernumerary nipple, is the presence of one or more extra nipples on the body.[healthline.com]

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