Systemic candidiasis is an invasive fungal infection caused by the yeast, Candida, resulting in its dissemination in the blood (candidemia) and/or an involvement of other organs (disseminated candidiasis).
Depending on the site of infection by Candida species (mostly Candida albicans), systemic candidiasis can be broadly classified into 2 entities: candidemia, a bloodstream candidial infection, or disseminated candidiasis, characterized by the infection of one or more organs.
Candidemia is mostly nosocomial in origin and manifests primarily as fever that is unresponsive to antibiotics  . Risk factors lowering the immune defense of the individual are frequently present, such as prolonged intravenous catheterization, prosthetic valves, drug abuse, etc . Some patients may also show associated deep-seated infections (disseminated candidiasis) or occasionally features of septic shock.
Disseminated candidiasis may present with fever originating from an unknown source and frequently involves one or more of the following organs: the eyes, central nervous system (CNS), kidneys, heart, musculoskeletal system, etc.
Candida endophthalmitis may arise either from an external source via iatrogenic/ accidental injury or as a consequence of candidemia. Patients may be asymptomatic or may present with pain or visual symptoms such as photophobia, floaters, or scotomas. Fundoscopy may reveal one or many off-white pinhead lesions in the vitreous, extending onto the retina.
The CNS manifestations of disseminated candidiasis vary widely, with meningitis, parenchymal infections, abscesses, mycotic aneurysms, and vasculitis being reported in patients. The usual presenting features include fever, confusion, coma, nuchal rigidity and different sensory/motor symptoms.
Candidial musculoskeletal infections may involve the joints, muscles or bones, with the vertebral column and knees amongst the common sites affected. The sternum, ribs and lower limbs may also be frequently involved.
Entire Body System
These new syndromes include the focal hepatosplenic candidiasis, Candida peritonitis and systemic candidiasis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
1-7 DOI: 10.3923/mj.2011.1.7 A Comprehensive Review of the Occurrence and Management of Systemic Candidiasis as an Opportunistic Infection Srikumar Chakravarthi and Nagaraja Haleagrahara Abstract: Candidiasis is a fungal infection which is prone to [web.archive.org]
The child was well postoperatively until day 9, when he developed fever. Intermittent fever continued despite treatment with several antibiotics. He became seriously ill on day 15 and developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Signs of candidemia include fever and chills that do not improve with antibiotics. Symptoms of other types of systemic candidiasis depend on the organ or system which is infected. [rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
These toxins will circulate in your blood for a short time until they can be eliminated and can cause weakness, malaise, headache, nausea and other symptoms. This is a good sign and generally the symptoms are mild. [theherbspecialist.com]
Your doctor should promptly investigate symptoms of illness or general malaise. Candidiasis Yeast Infection Diagnosis For healthy people, most physicians can diagnose a candida infection without laboratory tests. [emedicinehealth.com]
The onset of illness was earlier and was associated with antecedent hypotension, leukocytosis, and a gasless appearance on abdominal radiograph. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Physical examination reveals fever, hypotension, shock, tachycardia, and new murmurs or rubs (or recent changes in previously detected murmurs). [emedicine.medscape.com]
Hypotension, tachycardia, murmurs and rubs are common complaints seen. Patients with renal candidiasis are mostly asymptomatic and the diagnosis includes a kidney biopsy. [symptoma.com]
Liver, Gall & Pancreas
The patient's history includes the following: Fever unresponsive to broad-spectrum antimicrobials Right upper quadrant pain Abdominal pain and distension Jaundice (rare) Physical examination findings include right upper quadrant tenderness and hepatosplenomegaly [emedicine.medscape.com]
Symptoms include fever, hepatosplenomegaly and increased blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatases. Histopathology shows diffuse hepatic and/or splenic necrotic lesions or abscesses containing small numbers of pseudohyphae. [mycology.adelaide.edu.au]
Clinical features are fever (unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotics), abdominal pain, tender hepatosplenomegaly, vomiting, dysphagia and jaundice. It may be a form of inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome. [patient.info]
All patients with CSC had fever and hepatomegaly, and five complained of abdominal pain. Seven patients had neutrophilic leukocytosis and six an increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Skin Rash
Get emergency medical help if you have: hives, severe skin rash ; wheezing, difficult breathing; cold sweats, feeling light-headed; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. [drugs.com]
Skin Rash or Irritation One symptom of systemic yeast infection is a skin rash or irritation. These rashes can appear anywhere on the body. Some common locations for babies include around the mouth and diaper area. [healthyliving.azcentral.com]
Food allergies, skin rash in the stomach area after eating. Persistent flatulence (Gas). Hunger less than 2 hours after eating. Tired after eating. Eating disorders. Also Known as: Intestinal candidiasis, digestive yeast infection. [candidaspecialists.com]
rash is the first sign of infection Extremely varied appearance Papules, abscesses, plaques, blisters, sinuses, ulcers, cellulitis or purpura (bleeding into the skin) Blastomycosis Papules, nodules, warty lesions Pustules, abscesses, ulcers and scars [dermnetnz.org]
Often Candida Symptoms can be confusing as they can be similar to other conditions. For instance, many symptoms can overlap with chronic fatigue syndrome, which cause some to believe that many with that condition could be misdiagnosed. [candidafood.com]
As the candida spreads, symptoms grow more diffuse and convoluted: Depression, lethargy, mental confusion/fog, mood swings, PMS, confused thyroid function, susceptibility to infections (sinus, respiratory, bladder, gums, etc.), sensitivity to pollutants [breathing.com]
There have been a number of other books written on systemic Candidiasis which have been considered as classics as they set the path for thinking about this systemic disease with so many symptoms that the diagnosis is often confusing – it was termed by [detoxmetals.com]
The usual presenting features include fever, confusion, coma, nuchal rigidity and different sensory/motor symptoms. Patients may also present with abscesses in the myocardium or pericardium, frequently associated with candidemia. [symptoma.com]
The Third Stage of Candida may involve MENTAL and BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES: Inability to concentrate, not being able to read or follow a television program or carry on a hobby, serious forgetfulness, memory loss, mental confusion, not being able to think [phr.net]
A positive fungal culture forms the mainstay of diagnosis for systemic candidiasis. However, cultures from non-sterile sites such as the mouth, vagina, stool, sputum or skin are not beneficial in establishing a diagnosis. They may, however, serve as an indication to begin empirical antifungal therapy in clinically susceptible patients.
A positive blood culture helps in the diagnosis but is only seen in 50-60 % of patients with systemic candidiasis   . Cultures from other sterile sites such as the pericardium or the cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic of invasive disease and should be followed by a prompt initiation of appropriate therapy.
A nonculture assay measuring the serum β-glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall, shows a high specificity for systemic candidiasis . A negative assay reduces the chances of the patient suffering from an invasive disease.
An ophthalmological examination is to be conducted in patients showing manifestations of candidial endophthalmitis as well as in all patients suffering from candidemia. Urinalysis and a subsequent kidney biopsy may help in establishing the diagnosis of renal candidiasis.
Fluconazole is the treatment of choice for Candida albicans, but treatment response is unknown for other Candida spp., which may require treatment with amphotericin B. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Systemic candidiasis following cardiac surgery, previously regarded as fatal, has now a much improved prognosis. Prognosis depends largely on early diagnosis and treatment. Four of five patients we recently treated for this disease survived. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] organ (s) or body system is infected.  As of 2016, medical researchers are hoping T2 magnetic resonance testing will be able to more accurately and easily detect all forms of systemic candidiasis.  Last updated: 12/15/2016 The long-term outlook ( prognosis [rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
Expectations (prognosis) Thrush in infants may be painful, but is rarely serious. Because of discomfort, it can interfere with eating. If it does not resolve on its own within 2 weeks, call your pediatrician. [web.archive.org]
The etiologic agents were Candida albicans (21 cases), C. tropicalis (3 cases), and C. krusei (1 case). The mean interval of PCR-ELISA positivity in blood samples before the manifestation of clinical signs was 12.6 days. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD), an autoimmune, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which affects approximately one million people in Europe, is still unclear. [doi.org]
The epidemiology of Candida fungal infections is on the rise and it is a common cause of systemic infections. [scialert.net]
Reviewed by: Linda Vorvick, MD, Family Physician, Seattle Site Coordinator, Lecturer, Pathophysiology, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine. [web.archive.org]
References:     Pathophysiology Clinical features Local mucocutaneous Oropharyngeal ( oral thrush ) Pseudomembranous candidiasis White plaque in the oral cavity that can be scraped off, giving way to red, inflamed, or bleeding areas. [amboss.com]
Numerous interactions between fungi and bacteria and the complex immune response to gastrointestinal commensal or pathogenic fungi all impact on the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal inflammatory entities such as [doi.org]
The patient's history commonly reveals the following: Several days of fever that is unresponsive to broad-spectrum antimicrobials; frequently the only marker of infection Prolonged intravenous catheterization A history of several key risk factors (see Pathophysiology [emedicine.medscape.com]
However, publication biases preclude any definite conclusions for prevention of infection. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Basic Information You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [web.archive.org]
Discussion of surveillances and reports will be useful to improve our understanding of the importance of systemic Candida infections and to facilitate the prioritization of the investigation as well as the prevention efforts. [scialert.net]
Where to Start You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
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