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Tabun Poisoning

Poisoning by Tabun


Presentation

  • […] identification incident Kluwer Academic Publishers laboratory luminescence luminometry mass destruction materials method military monitoring nerve agents Neurokinin Orahovec organization parameters pathogens peptides personnel potential preparedness present[books.google.com]
  • Twelve hours after she presented, a breathing tube was inserted and she was placed on a ventilator.[poison.org]
  • Of Tabun's ingredients, he said, only potassium cyanide might not ordinarily be present at such a factory.[nytimes.com]
  • Nerve agent vapor is expected to have had its full effect by the time victims present to the emergency care system. [6] The effect of dermal exposure to liquid nerve agent depends on the anatomic site exposed, ambient temperature, and dose of nerve agent[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • At the present time, two families of nerve gases are important for military purposes, namely the G agents, which are alkyl esters of methylphosphonofluoridic acid or of dialkylphosphoramidocyanidic acid, and the V agents, which are mainly alkyl esters[emro.who.int]
Cough
  • People who are exposed to nerve agent vapor may experience immediate eye pain and tearing, dim vision, runny nose and cough. Within minutes people may become seriously ill. Symptoms of VX exposure may take hours to develop.[vdh.virginia.gov]
  • Fasciculations at site of exposure to liquid Following systemic absorption Tightness in chest, with prolonged wheezing expiration suggestive of bronchoconstriction or increased secretion; dyspnoea, slight pain in chest; increased bronchial secretion; cough[emro.who.int]
  • The muscles of the larynx and throat also become paralyzed, and victims are unable to swallow, cough, or clear the suffocating amount of saliva produced.[tonic.vice.com]
  • Example agents Tear Gas (CS) Pepper Spray (OC) Dispersal Liquid, aerosol Mode of Action Absorption through lungs, skin and eyes Effects Tears, coughing, and irritation to eyes, nose, mouth and skin; constricts airway[opcw.org]
  • Coughing and breathing problems also begin to occur. The individual then may begin to go into convulsions possibly progressing to coma or death.[osha.gov]
Bronchorrhea
  • Intubation may be necessary in cases of respiratory distress due to laryngospasm, bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, or seizures. Immediate aggressive use of atropine may eliminate the need for intubation.[openanesthesia.org]
  • Nerve agents cause death via respiratory failure, which in turn is caused by increased airway resistance (bronchorrhea, bronchoconstriction), respiratory muscle paralysis, and most importantly, loss of central respiratory drive. [10] Two chemical properties[emedicine.medscape.com]
Abdominal Cramps
  • cramps; epigastric and substernal tightness with “heartburn” and eructation; diarrhoea; tenesmus; involuntary defecation Increased/excessive sweating Increased/excessive salivation Increased/excessive lacrimation Bradycardia Slight miosis, occasionally[emro.who.int]
Chest Pain
  • Miosis (contraction of the pupil), blurred vision, lacrimation, tachycardia (rapid heart beat) or bradycardia (slow heart beat), hypertension or hypotension, and chest pain also are common.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
  • pains, and an increase in the production of saliva.[osha.gov]
Drooling
  • Symptoms of nerve agent poisoning include: Neuromuscular Effects Autonomic Nervous System Effects Central Nervous System Effects Twitching Weakness Paralysis Respiratory failure Reduced Vision Small pupil size Drooling Sweating Diarrhea Nausea Abdominal[faculty.washington.edu]
  • It was a dramatic poison: Dilute solutions destroyed insect food pests and also caused vomiting, shortness of breath, pupil dilation, drooling, sweating, diarrhea, and death in apes and other mammals.[cen.acs.org]
Foaming at the Mouth
  • Excessive acetylcholine corroborates what has been reported and seen in the videos taken just after the attack, including uncontrolled salivation that will cause "foaming at the mouth," vomiting, tearing, involuntary defecation and urination, tiny pinpoint[tonic.vice.com]
Hypersalivation
  • Atropine sulfate blocks the muscarinic effects of acetylcholine that cause bronchorrhoea, hypersalivation, bronchoconstriction and bradycardia, thereby reducing these effects.[emro.who.int]

Treatment

  • Oxime doses of 25% or 5% of its LD(50) were used for pretreatment 15 min before tabun-poisoning and for treatment 1 min after tabun administration to mice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c. 2, Zagreb, Croatia. suzana@imi.hr Abstract Improving the efficacy of antidotal treatment of poisonings with nerve agents is still a challenge for the scientific[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Murder Mysteries , Tabun and Thriller Writing , Tabun as a Murder Weapon , Tabun Exposure , Tabun Methods of Exposure , Tabun Poisoning , Tabun Poisoning Preparedness , Tabun Toxicity , Tabun Vapor Absorption , Tabun Vapors and Clothing Contamination , Treatments[jamesjmurray.blog]
  • Review of oximes available for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning. J Appl Toxicol 1994;14:317-31. Johnson MK, Jacobsen D, Meredith TJ, Eyer P, Heath AJ, Ligtenstein DA, Marrs TC, Szinicz L, Vale JA, Haines JA.[degruyter.com]
  • […] present production protective equipment protective masks protective suits protein proteome public health rapid receptor response risk assessment scenario sensor specific Stopa tabun target techniques technologies terrorist threat agents toxic toxins treatment[books.google.com]

Epidemiology

  • Biden: Syrian gov't responsible for "heinous use" of chem. weapons Syrian state news agency: Kerry lying about chemical weapons attack "The reported symptoms of the patients, in addition to the epidemiological pattern of the events -- characterized by[cbsnews.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Darkness prevented them from identifying it as unknown and dangerous. The men were severely injured and had to be evacuated to Copenhagen. In 1997, the Polish vessel F.V.[oceanhealthindex.org]
  • They just assumed that the Allied military had taken note of the research and prevented further publication in order to use it as a secret weapon if Germany used gas first. In reality, Allied military scientists had completely overlooked it.[history.stackexchange.com]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Sheets. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service; Atlanta, GA. U.S.[health.ny.gov]
  • Pralidoxime will reverse the contractions and paralysis, but if sarin gas was used, pralidoxime must be given within five to eight minutes to prevent irreversible chemical binding.[tonic.vice.com]
  • To do so, the country needed to prevent insect pests from depleting its food supply.[cen.acs.org]

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