Telogen effluvium is characterized by abnormal thinning or hair loss in early years of life. It is a type of scalp disorder, which primarily occurs due to early onset of the telogen phase.
Increased shedding of hair is the most common clinical sign of telogen effluvium. Hair scalp would feel less dense than it was before. Hair loss does not follow a distinct pattern and affects the entire region of scalp equally.
In the acute form of telogen effluvium, hair loss occurs for less than 6 months. Affected individuals notice sudden loss of hair. In the chronic form, hair loss continues for more than 6 months. The onset is gradual, but it can get difficult to identify the inciting factors .
Entire Body System
The rigorous review process does not allow any compromise in quality It is indexed in many indexing agencies and the articles are available under creative commons licence free of cost The frequency of publication supports many aspiring authors from India [jcdr.net]
Ferritin measurement is the test that best reflects a bone marrow aspirate and should be higher than 60ng/dl. [doi.org]
Keywords: Alopecia; Alopecia areata; Biopsy; Dermoscopy; Histology RESUMO A alopecia difusa tem como principais causas eflúvio telógeno, alopecia androgenética difusa (alopecia androgenética de padrão feminino) e alopecia areata difusa. [doi.org]
Diffuse alopecia is mainly caused by telogen effluvium, diffuse androgenetic alopecia (female-pattern hair loss) and diffuse alopecia areata. Differential diagnosis between the three disorders may be difficult in several occasions. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
"Clinical and histological challenge in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alopecia: Female androgenetic alopecia, telogen effluvium and alopecia areata - part II". [en.wikipedia.org]
Laboratory tests are of little help in diagnosing the condition of telogen effluvium. In view of this, scalp biopsy is the one of the most useful methods to diagnose the condition. However, this test is also seldom necessary if history of the disease is characteristic and gentle pull produces numerous hairs. For the pull test approximately 20 to 60 hairs are firmly, but not forcefully, tugged away from the scalp. Telogen hairs will have a characteristic appearance .
In addition, blood tests would also be required to determine the underlying etiology. Complete blood profile, serum iron, ferritin and iron saturation are all warranted to evaluate the presence of iron deficiency. Medical practitioners regard iron saturation as a more valuable test for confirming iron deficiency .
- Human Papillomavirus
We describe two cases of telogen effluvium occurring in two 11-year-old children following bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine administration. The two children began to lose their hair following the second HPV vaccine dose. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cases have been identified after viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in children, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and dengue fever in adults. [visualdx.com]
papillomavirus vaccine administration: a report of two cases. ( 22584489 ) Tuccori M...Blandizzi C 2012 45 Oral zinc therapy for zinc deficiency-related telogen effluvium. ( 22741940 ) Karashima T...Hashimoto T 2012 46 Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in [malacards.org]
- Lymphocytic Infiltrate
infiltrate in alopecia totalis.  Vitamin D levels may also play a role in normal hair cycle.  Many new cosmetic treatments have been reported, including stemoxydine, nioxin, minoxidil, and a leave-on technology combination: caffeine, niacinamide [en.wikipedia.org]
The first histological sign of the disease is a lymphocytic infiltrate around the bulb of the terminal hair located in the hypodermis. [doi.org]
Treating the underlying etiology can help in effective management of the condition. Individuals with a poor diet are advised to consume a nutritionally balanced diet in order to correct deficiencies if any. If telogen effluvium occurs as a side effect of certain medications, then the same should be withdrawn and substitute advised .
Chronic telogen effluvium does not resolve spontaneously and can lead to baldness in certain cases. Individuals are given topical minoxidil which has proven to be helpful in many instances. Affected individuals often chose hair transplantation for restoring the lost hair; its efficacy has however not been proved.
A well balanced diet should be consumed. Those in practice of taking large doses of Vitamin A should be discontinued.
Factors that significantly disrupt the normal hair cycle call for development of telogen effluvium. Some form of stress forcibly causes the roots of hair to enter the telogen phase prematurely. The various factors responsible include several eating disorders, hormonal imbalances, surgery, and physical trauma, deficiency of iron, certain medications, weight loss and changes in dietary pattern. Other factors that contribute to more than normal hair loss include, severe infections, conditions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, high fever and psychological stress .
Telogen effluvium is a common phenomenon, and majority of individuals have experienced it, at least once in their lifetime. The exact incidence however is not known. No mortality has been associated with telogen effluvium. Morbidity profile is limited only to mild cosmetic alterations. The condition can strike any individual at any age. Infants are at lesser risk for developing telogen effluvium. Telogen effluvium has a predilection for women between the age group of 30 to 60 years .
Telogen effluvium causes significant loss of hair from all parts of the body, however hair loss from the scalp is the more evident. Pathophysiology of telogen effluvium is greatly influenced by the hair growth cycle. The hair cycle follows distinct phases:
- Anagen (growth phase)
- Catagen (short transition stage)
- Telogen (resting phase)
Anagen occurs for for 2 to 7 years and is genetically determined. The catagen phase is short and signals the end of the active growth of a hair. The resting phase takes between 1 to 6 months. During the telogen, the hair continues to remain in the follicle, until it is removed by growth of new hair . In majority of individuals, 5 – 15% of scalp hair is always in the telogen phase. Trigger factors such as stress, physical trauma, medications and or surgery can cause the hair to prematurely enter the telogen phase. Shedding however does not occur until new hair grows in the follicle .
Not all factors can be controlled to prevent hair loss. However, dietary modifications and withdrawing certain medications can help in arresting telogen effluvium. Improving iron stores and normalizing levels of serum iron can also help prevent hair shedding .
Telogen phase is defined as the resting stage of the hair follicles. Alterations in the normal cycle of the hair can lead to considerable hair loss. Telogen effluvium can be both acute and chronic in nature. It is more of a reactive process which is triggered by hormonal factors or conditions that induce psychological stress. With prompt initiation of treatment and if the disease is in its initial stages, recovery is spontaneous. If there is a family history of alopecia, then complete recovery may take time .
- Definition: Telogen effluvium is characterized by excessive hair loss which causes gradual thinning of hair. Middle aged women are more prone to develop the condition than males. Infants in early months of life are less likely to suffer from telogen effluvium.
- Cause: Several factors can trigger the onset of telogen effluvium which include physical trauma, psychological stress, iron deficiency, changes in dietary pattern, and side effects to certain medications, high fever, illnesses, infections, weight loss and surgical procedures.
- Symptoms: Excessive hair fall is the preliminary and major sign of telogen effluvium. Individuals may notice less dense hair in scalp. More than normal hair would be noticed on pillows, bathrooms and hair brush.
- Diagnosis: Laboratory tests are of little value in diagnosing telogen effluvium. However, complete blood profile, serum iron levels, ferritin level and iron saturation studies are required for understanding the etiology. Scalp biopsy may be required in certain instances. In addition, a hair pull test would also be done to determine telogen effluvium. Hair strands having characteristic white bulb at the end is an indication of telogen effluvium.
- Treatment: Chronic form of telogen effluvium does not resolve spontaneously. Surgery to restore hairs is not much effective. Topical application of minoxidil lotion may be applied and has found be effective in arresting hair loss.
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